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What are considered first rank symptoms of schizophrenia?
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Psychotic delusions and hallucinations
What are considered second rank symptoms of schizophrenia?
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Any other experiences or behaviors associated with schizophrenia that aren't delusions or hallucinations
What population is the only group that it thought to experience improvement from schizophrenia?
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The elderly
When are patients with schizophrenia at highest risk for suicide?
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During the acute phases
What are the focus of initial treatment for schizophrenia?
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Initiation of medications, decreasing the risk of suicide, normalizing sleep and reducing substance use.
What is the focus of the stabilization period of treatment for schizophrenia?
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Medication regimens are established and the families are adjusted to the idea of having a family member with schizophrenia. Ideally substance use is eliminated.
What is the focus of the maintenance and recovery period of treatment for schizophrenia?
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Regaining previous level of functioning and quality of life.
What is a major reason for relapses of schizophrenia patients?
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Noncompliance with the medication regimen which may be a stressor for causing a severe and rapid relapse.
What happens with each successive relapse that a schizophrenia patient experiences?
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There is a longer period of time to recover.
Aside from medication compliance, what factors have been implicated in schizophrenic relapses?
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The degree of cognitive impairment, the degree of coping skills, the accessibility of community resources, income supports, and responsiveness of friends, family and supportive others.
How long must symptoms of schizophrenia be present in order to be diagnosed?
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They must experience symptoms most days of a month with continuous disturbances for at least 6 months.
_________ symptoms are considered symptoms that are present but shouldn't be, like delusions or hallucinations.
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Positive
__________ symptoms are considered symptoms that aren't present that should be, like a flat affect instead of a full range affect.
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Negative
__________ symptoms reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions, including delusions and hallucinations.
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Positive
________ symptoms reflect a lessening or loss of functions, such as restrictions in the range and intensity of emotion, reduced fluency and productivity of thought or speech, withdrawal and inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activity, and inability to experience pleasure.
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Negative
_________ type schizophrenia is characterized by delusions or auditory hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior without an inappropriate or flat affect.
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Paranoid Type
__________ type schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized speech, behavior and a flat or inappropriate affect.
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Disorganized Type
___________ type of schizophrenia is characterized by at least two of the following: motor instability/stupor, excessive purposeless motor activity, extreme negativism, posturing/prominent grimaces or mannerisms, echolalia or echopraxia.
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Catatonic type
_________ type of schizophrenia is characterized by an absence of prominent hallucinations or delusions, but the patient has odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.
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Residual type
__________ are erroneous fixed, false beliefs that cannot be changed by a reasonable argument that are usually a misinterpreted experience.
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Delusions
__________ delusions are the belief that one has exceptional powers, wealth, skills, influences or destiny.
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Grandiose
__________ delusions are the belief that one is dead or a calamity is impending.
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Nihilistic
_________ delusions are the belief that one is being watched, ridiculed, harmed or plotted against.
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Persecutory
__________ delusions are the belief about abnormalities in body functions or structure.
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Somatic
What type of hallucinations are most common with schizophrenia?
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Auditory
__________ is a negative symptom of schizophrenia defined as a concurrent experience of equally strong opposing feelings so that it is impossible to make a decision.
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Ambivalence
_________ is a negative symptom of schizophrenia that is characterized by an inability to enjoy activities.
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Anhedonia
What happens to the ventricular system of the brain in patients with schizophrenia?
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It enlarges
What happens to the brain cortex in patients with schizophrenia?
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The sulci becomes more prominent
What happens to the hippocampus and temporal lobe of the brain in patients with schizophrenia?
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They become smaller


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