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What is addiction?
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The continued use of substances despite adverse consequences.
________ is when a person uses a substance for the purpose of intoxication, or for a purpose beyond its intended use. The end result is a failure to fulfill major role obligations.
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Abuse
________ refers to a physiological dependence as evidenced by tolerance and withdrawal or impairment in social or occupational functioning resulting from the pathological and repeated use of substances. The end result is clinically significant impairment
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Dependence
_________ is the adverse physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person ceases using a substance.
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Withdrawal
Substance _______ is a condition that occurs from substance use that doesn't met the criteria for substance dependence but does result in a reversible substance-specific syndrome due to ingestion.
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Substance Intoxication
What drug is most widely used by African American youth?
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Alcohol
Which ethnicity has the lowest prevalence rate for substance abuse?
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Asian and Pacific Islander
This is the term for a physiological reaction experienced by Asians resulting in a red cutaneous flush or rash that appears on the face and body, particularly the ears, after drinking.
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Asian flushing syndrome
What is the underlying cause of Asian flushing syndrome?
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A lack of the liver enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
Which ethinicity has the highest rate of alcohol abuse?
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Native Americans
Years of alcohol abuse can cause cerebellar degeneration. The symptoms that result include:
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Impaired coordination, broad-based unsteady gait, fine tremors, disturbances in REM sleep, and amnestic disorders.
What should be involved in an alcohol screen of patients?
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Drinking patterns or behaviors to may lead to increased risk of developing alcoholism as well as for alcohol use disorders.
What are signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?
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Tremors, seizures, increased temperature, pulse and BP (changes in vitals), sweating, GI problems, delirium tremens
What are the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal?
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Abdominal cramping, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, dilated pupils, yawning, gooseflesh, nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, insomnia, fever.
________ occurs when the body develops more rapid metabolism of alcohol and a decreased response to sedating, motor and anxiolytic effects.
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Tolerance
What structure in the brain is thought to be instrumental in the development of alcohol tolerance?
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Locus ceruleus
How soon after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in a patient that is addicted will symptoms of withdrawal appear?
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Within 12 hours
What is a priority nursing intervention for a patient suspected of undergoing alcohol withdrawal?
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Observing for signs of seizure activity
What is the pathological change due to alcohol intoxication that causes chronic brain syndrome?
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Atrophy of the frontal cortex
_________ syndrome is caused by thiamine deficiency characterized by oculomotor dysfunctions, ataxia and confusion.
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Wernicke's syndrome
__________ is the development of retrograde and anterograde amnesia with sparing of intelluctual function as a result of consuming alcohol for long periods of time.
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Korsakoff's psychosis
What is a key feature of Korsakoff's psychosis?
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Confabulation, telling a plausible but imagined scenario that fills in memory gaps.
What class of medications are commonly used to treat alcohol withdrawal?
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Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics
What benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed to treat alcohol withdrawal?
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Valium/diazepam or Librium/chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride
When do seizures typically develop once a patient has begun alcohol withdrawal?
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Within the first 48 hours
What drug is used as adjunct therapy to help deter patients from drinking?
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Antabuse/Disulfiram
What are some adverse effects that can occur from drinking alcohol while on Antabuse/Disulfiram?
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Respiratory depression, cardiovascular collapse, arrhythmias, MI, CHF, unsconsciousness, convulsions and death
What role does Trexan/Naltrexone have in treating alcohol dependence?
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It can reduce alcohol craving, maintain abstinence, and interfere with the tendency to want to drink more if a recovering patient slips and has a drink.
What are common vitamin deficiencies experienced by alcoholics?
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Thiamine (B1), folic acid, magnesium
What is commonly given to alcoholic patients with a history of experiencing withdrawal seizures?
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Magnesium sulfate to treat a magnesium deficiency


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