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_________ are defined by the DSM-IV as a recurrent disturbance or alterations in mood that cause psychological distress and behavioral impairment.
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Mood disorders
________, when describing affect, means the patient is exhibiting a significantly reduced intensity of emotional expression.
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________, when describing affect, means the patient is exhibiting absent or nearly absent affective expression.
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________, when describing affect, means the patient is exhibiting discordant affective expression accompanying the content of speech or ideation.
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________, when describing affect, means the patient is exhibiting varied, rapid and abrupt shifts in affective expression.
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________, when describing affect, means the patient is exhibiting mildly reduced in the range and intensity of emotional expression.
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What is the distinction between a unipolar and bipolar mood disorder?
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Unipolar is a depressive disorder whereas bipolar has manic and depressive properties.
What criteria must be met in order for a patient to be diagnosed with a mood disorder?
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A change from previous function must be present (rated severity), duration must be longer than 2 weeks, and clinically significant distress or impairment must be present.
What are the four major categories of mood episodes?
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Major depressive episode, mixed episode (depression and mania), manic episode and hypomanic episode.
What is the primary diagnostic critereon for major depressive disorder?
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Two or more major depressive episodes along with four of the following: disruption in sleep, changes in appetite/weight, changes in concentration, energy, psychomotor agitation or retardation, excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness, or suicidal ide
How is dysthymic disorder different from major depressive disorder?
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It is a milder but more chronic form of major depressive disorder. The person experiences a depressed mood for most days for at least 2 years with two or more of the following: poor appetitie, overeating, insomnia, oversleeping, low energy or fatigue, l
What are the differences in how children manifest symptoms of depressive disorders as compared to adults?
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Children experience many of the same symptoms, although they are more likely to express boredom (anhedonia), and are more likely to have anxiety symptoms such as fear of separation and somatic symptoms like headaches or stomach aches. Although psychosi
How do teens typically manifest symptoms of depressive disorders?
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Irritability, anger, acting out.
How do symptoms of major depression differ in the elderly as opposed to adults?
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They usually don't meet the diagnostic criteria, treatment is usually successful but response is slower, depression is usually tied to chronic illness, and they have the highest suicide rate.
What are the risk factors for depression?
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Experiencing a prior episode, family hx, lack of social support, lack of coping ability, presence of life/environmental stressors, current substance use/abuse, medical comorbidity.
What is the neuroendocrine and neuropeptide hypotheses related to the development depression?
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Multiple endocrine alterations cause dysregulation of neurotransmitters which leads to depressive symptoms. The hypothalamus-pituitary-XX axes are flawed in some way, contributing to depression.
___________ is an area of research into cytokines and the messages they carry between immune cells and brain cells which influence depressive symptoms.
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What is the priority concern for patients with depression?
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Safety?assessment of suicide risk should be conducted frequently.
Why are people from culturally or ethnically diverse populations more likely to be misdiagnosed with anotther condition when they are actually experiencing depression?
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Their symptomatology may be expressed using different terminology than is traditionally used in the West.
A pervasive and sustained emotion that color's one perception of the world and how one functions in it?.
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What are considered the primary mood disorders?
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Depressive and Manic Depressive disorders
What is a mood episode?
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They are considered the building blocks of a mood disorder diagnosis. It is an episode of major depression, mania, mania and depression together, or hypomania.
Who is most likely to experience major depressive disorders?
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Adolescent and adult women are more likely to experience major depressive orders than boys/men in the same group. Prepubertally, both are equally likely.
What is the neurobiological hypothesis for the cause of major depression?
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Deficiency or dysregulation in the CNS concentrations of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin or in their receptor functioning leads to depressive symptomatology.
What do psychoanalysts attribute depression to (Freud)?
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Lack of love, care, warmth, and/or protection early in life.
What do behavioral theorists attribute depression to?
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A severe reduction in rewarding activities or an increase in unpleasant events in one's life results in depression causing a continuous negative feedback, intensifying the depression.
What do cognitive theorists attribute depression to?
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Irrational beliefs and negative distortions of thought about the self, the environment, and the future engender and perpetuate depressive affects.
What do developmental theorists attribute depression to?
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Loss of a parent through death or separation or lack of emotionally adequate parenting.
What do social theorists attribute depression to?
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Maladaptive patterns in the family interactions or social factors like isolation, deprivation or financial deprivation.
How is the severity of depression gauged?
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By the extent of physical changes in appetitie, sleep and energy level.

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