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____________ are measurable, specific symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are expected to improve with a pharmacological treatment.
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Target symptoms
The unwanted effects of a medication are called?
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Side effects
Unwanted effects of a medication that causes serious physiological consequences are called?
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Adverse reactions
What is the primary target of most psychiatric medications?
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The CNS at the cellular, synaptic level at four sites: receptors, ion channels, enzymes and carrier proteins.
Substances that initiate the same reponse as a chemical normally present in the body is referred to as ___________.
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An agonist
Stubstances that block the response of a given receptor to a chemical present in the body is referred to as __________.
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An antagonist
The ability of a drug to bind to a receptor with precise qualities is referred to as?
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Selectivity
The degree of attraction or strength of the bond between a drug and its biologic target is referred to as?.
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Affinity
A ________ bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. This type of bond is commonly seen in monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
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Covalent
Drugs with _________ are often called irreversible because they are long lasting and can take several weeks to resolve.
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Covalent
A drug's ability to interact with a given receptor is its ___________, or the ability to produce a response once it becomes attached to a receptor.
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Intrinsic activity
What three properties do all agonists have?
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Selectivity, affinity and intrinsic activity
What two properties do all antagonists have?
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Selectivity and affinity (they have no intrinsic activity because they produce no biologic response by attaching to a receptor).
_________ are a membrane protein that transports a specific molecule across the cell membrane after recognizing a site specific to the type of molecule to be transported. Usually a neurotransmitter is transported back to the presynaptic nerve once it has
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Carrier proteins/uptake receptors
What do medications that act on carrier proteins/uptake receptors typically do?
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Medications block or inhibit the transport of molecules allowing for increased activity of that molecule.
________ is the ability of a drug to produce a response and is considered when a drug is selected for a specific condition.
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Efficacy
_______ refers to the dose of drug required to produce a specific effect.
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Potency
A rapid decrease in a drug's effects that may develop within a few minutes of exposure to the drug is referred to as?
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Desensitization
_________ is a gradual decrease in the action of a drug at a given dose or concentration in the blood result in loss of therapeutic effect of the drug.
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Tolerance
Loss of therapeutic effectiveness of a drug that worked previously due to tolerance is referred to as?.
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Treatment refractoriness
__________ refers to the point at which concentrations of a drug in the bloodstream are high enough to become harmful or poisonous to the body.
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Toxicity
What is a therapeutic index?
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The ratio of the maximum nontoxic dose to the minimum effective dose of a drug.
What does it mean when a drug has a low therapeutic index?
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It has a low threshold of error. The therapeutic dose and toxic dose are very close.
What external factors can impact a drug's toxicity?
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Drug tolerance, coadministration of other drugs, or consumption of alcohol.
What are 5 general mechanisms that can cause a decrease in a medication's effects?
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Change in receptors, loss of receptors, exhaustion of a neurotransmitter supply, increased metabolism of the drug or a physiologic adaptation.
Which medication administration route is considered the most variable in terms of medication absorption and delivery?
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The oral route
What is the term first pass effect referring to?
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When oral drugs are consumed, they pass through the GI tract into the bloodstream via a portal vein and then to the liver. Most of the drug is metabolized during this process, causing only a fraction of it to reach systemic circulation. Because of this,
___________ describes the amount of a drug that reaches systemic circulation unchanged by the first pass effect.
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Bioavailability
The amount of drug delivered to the target tissues is referred to as _________.
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Distribution
What factors can impact the distribution of a drug?
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Size of the target organ, amount of blood flow/perfusion to the area, solubility of the drug, plasma protein binding or anatomic barriers.


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