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The observable characteristics or expressions of a genetic trait is referred to as the ___________.
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Phenotype
__________ genetics is the study of inheritance.
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Population Genetics
What are the goals of population genetics?
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To show the inheritance of traits or illnesses from generation to generation and to identify risks and patterns of transmission.
Which part of the brain is referred to as gray matter?
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The cerebrum/cortex (occupies the upper portion of the cranium).
Which hemisphere of the brain provides input for receptive nonverbal communication, spatial orientation and recognition, intonation of speech, facial recognition, recognition of facial expressions of emotion, and nonverbal learning and memory?
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The right hemisphere (the visual processor).
Which hemisphere of the brain is involved in verbal language function, receptive and expressive speech control, conducts sequencing, processes numeric symbols, and is involved in verbal learning and memory?
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The left hemisphere
A patient has been moved to your floor that was in a motor vehicle accident that damaged their frontal lobe. What impact could this have on the patient?
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The patient could experience: spastic paralysis on the opposite side of the body from the damaged lobe, expressive aphasia (difficulty producing the motor movements required to speak from damage to Broca's area), personality changes, problems with execut
A patient has been moved to your floor that was in a motor vehicle accident that has damaged their parietal lobe. What impact could this have on the patient?
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Damage to this area causes sensory deficits. The patient will be able to sense stimuli, but may be unable to interpret it. They may be unable to recognize objects by touch, calculate, write, draw, organize spatial directions, or recognize fingers of the
A patient has been admitted to your unit with a stroke that impacted their temporal lobe. What impact could this have on the patient?
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Problems interpreting speech, integrating sensory and visual information involved in written or verbal language, problems with visual recognition, memory or modulating emotions/mood.
A patient is admitted to your unit with cortical blindness. You know, based on this, that patient has had damage to which lobe of the brain?
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Occipital
What is the function of association areas within the brain?
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Association areas share information between adjacent lobes in the brain allowing the brain to work as an integrated whole.
What is referred to as the 'white matter' of the brain?
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Subcortical axonal tissue that are surrounded by glia.
What changes would you expect to see in a patient with damage to their basal ganglia?
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Changes in posture or muscle tone, or abnormal movements like twitches or tremors.
Which part of the brain is often adversely affected by medications used to treat psychiatric disorders leading to motor-related problems?
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The basal ganglia
What structures make up the limbic system?
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The hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and limbic midbrain nuclei.
What does the limbic system govern?
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Basic emotions, needs, drives and instincts, including love, hate, anger, caring, and aggression.
What are the functions of the hippocampus?
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Storing emotional information associated with a memory.
How does the manifestations of damage to the hippocampus differ between damage to the right vs. the left side?
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Right side damage: difficulty with recognition and recall of complex visual and auditory patterns. Left side damage: impaired verbal memory
Which part of the limbic system is involved in the manifestations of Alzheimer's that are considered hallmark symptoms?
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The hippocampus' nerves deteriorate and produces memory dysfunction, a hallmark of Alzheimer's.
What is the function of the thalamus?
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It relays all sensory information except for smell from thalamus to the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Which part of the limbic system is involved in basic human activities like sleep-rest patterns, body temperature, and physical drives like hunger and sex?
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The hypothalamus
Which part of the brain is impacted when the patient has a lack of appetite or sleep problems?
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The hypothalamus
Where are neurohormones like oxytocin and ADH secreted from?
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The nerve cells of the hypothalamus
You observe a patient wearing a winter coat in the summer time and yet they don't appear hot. What structure in the brain is probably dysfunctional and therefore causing this phenomenon?
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The hypothalamus
Which part of the limbic system/brain is involved in the sense of smell?
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The amygdala
The ________ is a structure in the brain that provides an emotional component to memory and is involved in modulating aggression and sexuality.
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The amygdala
Which part of the brain appears to play a role in addiction?
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The limbic midbrain nuclei
Where do emotions like feeling satisfied by food, pleasure with nurturing children, and enjoyment of sexual activity originate within the brain?
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The limbic midbrain nuclei
Muscle tone, common reflexes and automatic voluntary motor functioning like walking are controlled by what CNS structure?
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The extrapyramidal motor system
What symptoms would you expect to see in a patient with damage to their extrapyramidal motor system?
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Hypertonicity of muscle groups and/or involuntary motor movements (think Parkinson's).


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