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Nursing In a Flash 
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Question Answer
Normal adult urine output is ____ a day.
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1500-1600mL/day **less than 30mL/hr is a sign of renal problems**
____ is a sign of glomerular injury.
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Proteinuria
A comorbid condition with renal alterations is ____.
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Anemia ** cannot produce sufficient erythropoietin**
____ is often a sign of renal alterations.
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Nocturia
What fluids directly affect urine formation?
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coffee, tea, cocoa, and cola (caffeine)
____ inhibits the release of ADH, resulting in increased water loss in urine.
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Alcohol
____ or ____ are types of medications that often cause urinary retention.
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Antihistamines and anticholinergics (atropine)
A feeling of pressure, discomfort, tenderness over the pubic symphysis bone, restlessness and diaphoresis are indicative of urinary ____.
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retention
What are the key signs of acute retention?
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Bladder distention, absence of urine output over several hours
What is the most common health care associated infection?
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UTI
What are the physical concerns related to urinary incontinence?
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Skin breakdown
What are the disadvantages of an ileal conduit or reservoir?
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local irritation and skin breakdown, if urine outflow is obstructed, irreversible damage to the kidneys occurs from chronic infection or hydronephrosis
____ is the placement of a tube directly into the kidneys to drain urine.
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nephrostomy
Most people void an average of ____.
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Five times a day
An indwelling catheter places a client at risk for ____.
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Infection, catheter blockage, skin care problems **monitor I&O**
Bleeding from ____ causes dark red urine.
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Kidneys or ureters
What is uremic syndrome?
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An increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood, marked fluid and electrolyte imbalances leading to N/V, headache, come, and convulsions. **LIFE THREATENING**
Bleeding from ____ causes bright red urine.
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Bladder or urethra
Dark amber urine can be a sign of ____ dysfunction.
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Liver dysfunction
All urine specimens should be labeled with:
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Client's name, date and time of collection
____ precautions are mecessary during urine specimen handling.
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Standard
What are times urine specimens useful in measuring?
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Adrenocortical steriods/hormones, creatinine clearance, protein quantity
Which is more accurate: specific gravity or urine osmolality?
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Urine osmolality **# of particles in solution**
A specific gravity is useful in the determination of a client's ____ status.
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fluid balance
When should urine be collected for urinalysis and how soon should testing be done?
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Urine should come from the first void in the morning and should be processed within 2 hours
What is normal urine pH?
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4.6-8.0
What is the normal value of glucose in urine?
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0. less than 180 mg per 100 mL is okay.
What is the normal level of ketones in urine?
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0
What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
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1.0053-1.030
What is the normal value of RBCs in urine?
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up to 2


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