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Nursing In a Flash 
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Lower esophageal rings, candidiasis, head/neck cancer, trauma/surgical resection and cervical spondylosis are examples of ____ causes of dysphagia.
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Obstructive
What are the complications of dysphagia?
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Aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, decreased nutritional status, weight loss.
Silent aspiration occurs without a cough and occurs in clients with ____ problems.
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Neurological (increased risk for stroke victims)
What is musculoskeletal pain?
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Pain that happens after exercise, rib trauma, prolonged coughing, or when breathing in.
What does a registered dietician dysphagia screening tool include?
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Medical record review, observation of client during meals for changes in voice quality, posture, head control, drooling, coughing, facial or tongue weakness, difficulty with secretions, pocketing
____ joints are bones jointed by bones. No movement is associated with this type of joint.
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Synostotic
____ represent the largest threat to bone health and functional independence of older individuals.
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Falls
____ bones contribute to height and length.
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Long bones
____ bones occur in clusters and permit movement of the extremities.
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Short bones
____ bones, like the bones in the skull and the ribs in the thorax, provide structural contour.
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Flat bones
____ bones make up the vertebral column and the mandible.
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Irregular bones
Fractures caused by weakened bone tissue are called ____ fractures.
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Pathological
This skull is an example of a ____ joint.
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Synostotic
The first sternocostal joint is an example of a ____ joint.
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Cartilaginous
When a ____ joint undergoes maximal growth, it ossifies.
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Cartilaginous
Synchondrosis is another name for a ____ joint.
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Cartilaginous
The ____ joint is a ligament or membrane uniting 2 bony surfaces.
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Fibrous
Syndesmosis joint is another name for a ____ joint.
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Fibrous
The paired tibia and fibula are an example of a ____ joint.
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Fibrous
The ____ joint is a freely movable joint in which contiguous bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and are connected by ligaments.
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Synovial (true joint)
____ are white, shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue binding joints together and connecting bones and cartilages. Sometimes they have a protective function.
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Ligaments
____ are white, glistening fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. They are strong, flexible and inelastic.
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Tendons
____ is nonvascular, supporting connective tissue located chiefly in the joints and thorax, trachea, larynx, nose and ear.
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Cartilage
Permanent cartilage is unossified except?
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In old age or with disease conditions like osteoarthritis.
In ____ tension, increased muscle contraction causes muscle shortening resulting in movement (Ex: Using an overhead trapeze to pull up in bed).
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Concentric
____ tension helps control speed and direction of movement (Ex: Slowly lowering).
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Eccentric (lengthening muscle)
Voluntary muscle movement is a combo of ____ and ____ contractions.
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Isotonic and isometric
____ contraction causes an increase in muscle tension or muscle work but no shortening or active movement of the muscle.
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Isometric (Ex: tightening les muscle)
Concentric and eccentric muscle actions are required for movement and are referred to as?
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dynamic or isotonic
Muscles of the lower extremities, trunk, neck, and back are concerned primarily with ____.
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posture


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