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Nursing In a Flash 
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Tachycardia=? BPM; Bradycardia=? BPM
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Tachycardia= 101 BPM; Bradycardia= 59 BPM
Hemorrhage and dehydration causes a decrease in?
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Circulation blood volume and decreased SVR
Left or right heart failure? Blood backs up into the systemic circulation?
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Right heart failure
Left or right heart failure? Blood backs up into the pulmonary circulation?
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Left sided heart failure
What causes the first (S1) heart sound?
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During ventricular diastole the atrioventricular (mitral and tricuspid) valves open and blood flows from the atria to the ventricles.
What causes the second (S2) heart sound?
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During the systolic phase, the semilunar (aortic and pulmonic) valves open and blood flows from the ventricles to the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Cardiac troponins I and T elevate within ____ of a cardiac event.
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12 hours.
Providers use ____ to diagnose acute myocardial infarcts.
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Cardiac enzymes which are: Creatine kinase, cardiac troponins I&T
A ____ determines the number and type of red and white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood.
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CBC
The right ventricle pumps blood through the ____ circulation and the left ventricle pumps blood through the ____ circulation.
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right ventricle- pulmonary; left ventricle- systemic
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute it ____.
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Cardiac output. Normal= 4 to 6 L/min
What is the formula for cardiac output?
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CO= SV X HR
With respect to the conduction system of the heart, what does each control: ANS, PNS, SNS?
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ANS= rate of impulsion generation and speed of transmission; PNS= originate from vagus, decreased rate and innervate atria, ventricles, SA and AV nodes; SNS= increased rate of impulse generation and speed, innervate all parts of atria and ventricles
Pulmonary disease is a common cause of ____ side heart failure.
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Right (result of pulmonary vascular resistance)
What CK findings are diagnostic for an acute myocardial infarction?
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a 50% increase between two samples 3-6 hours apart OR a single increase two-fold
____ can be used as an early index of damage to the myocardium. It increases within 3 hours of the event.
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Myoglobin; should be less than 90 mcg/L
What alterations in older adults result in decreased cardiac function?
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Calcification of the conduction pathways, thicker and stiffer heart valves due to lipid accumulation and fibrosis, and decrease in number of pacemaker cells in the SA node
A ____ determines coronary blood flow changes with increased activity.
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thallium stress test
____ is an invasive measure of intracardiac electrical pathways. It provides more specific information about difficult to treat dysrhythmias.
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Electrophysiological study (EPS)
____ is a noninvasive measure of heart structure and heart wall motion. Demonstrates overall cardiac performance.
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Echocardiography
Abnormal impulses origination above the ventricles are _____ dysrhythmias.
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Supraventricular. **have an abnormal P wave**
______ is a common dysrhythmia in older adults. Irregularly Irregular
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Atrial Fibrillation
Tachydysrhythmias and bradydysrhythmias ____ cardiac output and blood pressure.
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lower. (Tachycardia causes a decrease in diastolic filling time; bradycardia causes a decrease in heart rate.
What do the following represent: P wave; PR Interval; QRS complex; QT Interval?
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P wave= electrical conduction through atria, PR interval= AV to bundle of His to Purkinje, QRS Complex= impulse through ventricles, QT interval= ventricular depolarization and repolarization
What is the path of conduction through the heart?
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SA node (pacemaker; 60-100 bpm); AV node (40-60 bpm); Bundle of His (20-40 bpm); Purkinje (20-40 bpm)
How does the body adapt to hypovolemia?
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increase heart rate, peripheral vasoconstriction to increase the volume of blood returned to the heart thereby increasing cardiac output
_____ radionuclide angiography. Used to evaluate cardiac structure, myocardial perfusion and contractility.
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Scintigraphy
What are signs and symptoms of left-side heart failure?
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Fatigue, breathlessness (often at rest), dizziness, confusion, crackles, hypoxia, cough, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
What disease lead to myocardial pump failure?
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Coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular disorders, pulmonary disease
What could decrease a QT interval?
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Digitalis therapy, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia


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