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Question Answer
What are common causes of respiratory acidosis?
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atelectasis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, respiratory failure, airway obstruction, chest wall injury, drug OD, head injury, obesity
What are common causes of respiratory alkalosis?
Show Answer
asthma, pneumonia, mechanical ventilator, hyperventilation, anxiety, fever, exercise, CNS disorder, aspirin overdose
What are signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis?
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dizziness, confusion, tachypnea, dysrhythmias, numbness/tingling of extremities
what are common causes of metabolic acidosis?
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starvation, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, heavy exercise, drugs, renal tubular acidosis, excess aldosterone
what are signs and symptoms of respiratory acidosis?
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dizziness, lethargy, headache, vntricular dysrhythmias, warm and flushed skin, muscle twitching, convulsions/coma
What is the normal range for arterial blood oxygen?
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80-100
What are some causes of hypernatremia?
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increased sodium intake, wrong IV solution (hypertonic), CHF, water deficit, dehydration
What are some causes of hyperkalemia?
Show Answer
Renal failure, fluid volume deficit, burns/trauma, IV potassium, adrenal insufficiency, acidosis (ketoacidosis), Potassium sparing diuretics **anything that prevents urine from getting out**
What are some causes of hypokalemia?
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diuretics, diarrhea/vomiting, alkalosis, excess aldosterone, polyuria, diaphoresis, treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin
What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?
Show Answer
Apprehension, personality change, postural hypotension, dizziness, abdominal cramping, N/V/D, tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, convulsions, coma
What are common causes of hyponatremia?
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vomiting, diarrhea, oversuctioning, diuretics, kidney disease, burns, diaphoresis, polydipsia, SIADH
What are some commone cause of hypocalcemia?
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Rapid administration of blood transfusions containing citrate, hypoalbuminemia, hypoparathyroidism, Vit. D deficiency, pancreatitis, alkalosis, chronic renal failure, alcoholism
What are signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?
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Numbness/tingling around mouth and fingers, hyperactive reflexes, positive Trousseau's sign (foot spasm), positive Chvostek's sign (facial contraction), tetany, muscle cramps, fractures, ventricular tachycardia
What are common causes of hypercalcemia?
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Hyperparathyroidism, osteometastasis, Paget's, osteoporosis, acidosis, thiazide diuretics, prolonged immobilization
What are some signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?
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Anorexia, N/V, weakness, hypoactive reflexes, decreased LOC, personality changes, cardiac arrest, increased BUN, increased Creatinine
What are some causes of hypoosmolar water excess?
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SIADH, excess water intake
What are signs and symptoms of hypernatremia?
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Extreme thrist, dry/flushed skin, dry or sticky tounge/mucous membranes, postural hypotension, fever, agitation, restlessness, irritability, convulsions
What are signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?
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Weakness, fatigue, N/V, intestinal distention, decreased bowel sounds, decreased deep tendon reflexes, ventricular dysrhythmias, paresthesis, weak/irregular pulse, **flat T wave**
What are some common causes of isotonic fluid volume deficits?
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Dirrhea, vomiting, loss of plasma or whole blood (burns, hemmorhage), diaphoresis, fever, decreased oral intake, confusion, depression, diuretics
What are some causes of hypernatremia?
Show Answer
Excess salt intake, hypertonic solution, excess aldosterone secretion, diabetes insipidus, increased sensible and insensible water loss, water deprivation
This ion is essential for enzyme activities, neurochemical activities, and cardiac and skeletal excitability. It is regulated by diet, renal mechanisms, and the parathyroid hormone.
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Magnesium (normal range is 1.5-2.5)
What are some causes of hypermagnesemia?
Show Answer
Renal failure, excess intake
What are signs and symptoms of hypermagnesemia?
Show Answer
Hypoactive deep tendon reflex, decreased depth and rate of respirations, hypotension, flushing, bradycardia, ECG changes, arrhythmias
What are signs and symptoms of fluid volume excess?
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Rapid weight gain, edema, HTN, polyuria, neck vein distention, crackles in lungs, confusion, decreased hematocrit and BUN
What are some causes of hyperosmolar dehydration?
Show Answer
Diabetes inspisdus, hypothalamus injury, diabetic ketoacidosis, osmotic diuresis, administration of hypertonic formula
What are some common causes of isotonic fluid volumes excesses?
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CHF, renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, increased serum aldosterone and steroids, excessive sodium intake
This ion is necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, cell membrane integrity, cardiac condustion, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction.
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Calcium (normal range 4.5-5.5 serum; 8.5-10.5 total)
This ion is necessary for glycogen deposits in the liver and skeletal muscle, transmission nand conductions of nerve impulses, normal cardiac condustion and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction.
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Potassium (normal range is 3.5-5.0)
This ion is a major contributor to maintaining water balance, nerve impulse transmission, regulation of acid-base balance and it also participates in cellular chemical reactions.
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Sodium (normal range is 135-145)
What are signs and symptoms of hypomagnesemia?
Show Answer
Muscle tremors, hyperactive deep tendon reflex, confusion, tachycardia, HTN, dysrhythmias, positive Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs


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