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What malignancy incidence is the rising faster than any other malignancy in the US?
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The incidence of melanoma, due to genetic factors and sun exposure
At it's most basic, what is cancer?
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Uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells, and defective cellular differentiation
What two cancers have been increasing in incidence in the US?
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Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and melanoma
What are the major differences with Cancer for men when compared to women? (6)
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Men have the highest mortality due to lung cancer, more likely to die from cancer than women, more likely to get esophageal cancer, liver cancer, bladder cancer or head/neck cancer
What are the major differences with Cancer for women when compared to men? (2)
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Nonsmoking women are at greater risk than nonsmoking men to develop lung cancer, more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men
What are the top three causes of cancer deaths in men?
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Prostate Death by Lung/Bronchus (Kentucky #1 for lung cancer deaths) Colon/Rectal
What are the top three causes of cancer deaths in women?
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Breast Death by Lung/Bronchus Colon/Rectal
In women, which race is most likely to develop breast cancer?
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Caucasians
In women, which race is most likely to die from breast cancer?
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African Americans
Which stage of the development of cancer is characterized by the proliferation of cancer cells in spite of host control mechanisms?
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Progression
Where does breast cancer typically metastasize to?
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Bone, brain, liver, and lung.
_______ is a risk factor for breast cancer.
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Age
Oncogenes can activate cells into cellular division by...
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mimicking/replacing normal growth factors and causes uncontrolled growth and cellular divisions.
_______ are required before cancer can develop.
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Multiple Mutations
_______% of breast cancers are ER+.
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75%
In situ means...
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cells have changes and have proliferated but it is contained in the top of the epithelium. It hasn't invaded the basement membrane/stroma yet.
What triggers angiogenesis?
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A lack of oxygen.
What are malignant tumors of connective tissue called?
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Sarcomas
_______ is an important factor in the development of cancer.
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Inflammation
What is clonal proliferation/clonal expansion?
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A selective advantage that allows a mutated cell to multiply faster than a normal one.
The median age of diagnosis of cancer is _______.
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67
Cells that have lost all differentiation and function are _______.
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anaplastic
What are the limitations of tumor markers?
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Not specific/definitive; don't always detect early disease states; and don't diagnose, just monitor treatment.
What stage? Larger, more invasive within primary organ site...
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T2
What stage? Small, minimally invasive within primary organ site...
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T1
Tis
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In situ, non invasive
Staging: N=
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lymph node involvement
Staging: M=
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distant metastasis presence
What stage? Very large and/or very invasive. Spread to other organs...
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T4
Destruction of bone by a tumor causes...
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Hypercalcemia


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