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Question Answer
What are common blood studies used to assess the respiratory system?
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Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and arterial blood gasses (ABG)
_______ is used to noninvasively monitor SPO2 and SvO2.
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Oximetry
What methods are used to collect sputum samples?
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Expectoration (spit it out), tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, or sputum induction.
__________ is performed by having a patient inhale an irritating substance like hypertonic saline to obtain a sputum sample.
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Sputum induction
A TB skin test involves what type of injection?
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Intradermal
What are the nursing responsibilities for administering a TB test?
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-Ensure it is intradermal and not subQ -circle the injection site and tell the patient not to remove the mark -draw a diagram of the forearm and hand in the chart and indicate injection site
What are the nursing responsibilities when reading a TB test?
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-use a good light -if an induration is present, mark all four sides of the raised areas with a pen -measure the site in mm
T/F A positive TB test is a reddened area greater than 5 mm.
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False, a flat reddended area isn't a positive finding. The area must be indurated
What is the most commonly used test for assessment of the respiratory system?
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A chest Xray
_______ are used to evaluate areas of the chest like the mediastinum, hilum, and pleura.
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Computed Tomography (CT) scans
What are the different types of CT Scans used to assess the respiratory system?
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Helical, Spiral and High resolution
_______ CT is the most common noninvasive imaging procedure used to diagnose a pulmonary embolism.
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Spiral CT
What is the major difference between helical/spiral CT scans and a High Resolution CT scan?
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Helical/Spiral CT scans use contrast dye and High Resolution CTs don't
The alignment of spinning nuclei are shifted from place with a superimposed radiofrequency and then the rate of return to the original position is measured when using _________. This tool is used to evaluate areas near the lung apex or spine and to distinguish vascular from nonvascular structures.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A ventilation-perfusion scan is used primarily to check for the presence of a _______.
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Pulmonary Embolism...it cannot determine with 100% certainty/only the probability of a PE
In a Ventilation/Perfusion scan, what does the radioisotope do?
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It outlines the pulmonary vasculature so a photograph can be taken
In a Ventilation/Perfusion scan, what is the purpose of Xenon/Krypton?
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It outlines the alveoli so a photograph can be taken.
After a perfusion-ventilation scan, a client is negative for radioactivity. This is a good or bad finding?
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Bad...this suggests a lack of perfusion or airflow
________ is the most specific examination used to confirm the diagnosis of a pulmonary embolism.
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Pulmonary Angiography
A _________ is done by injecting radioopaque dye into the pulmonary artery. It is used to diagnose PE, congenital or acquired lesions lesions of pulmonary vessels.
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Pulmonary Angiography
_______ are used to distinguish benign and malignant solitary modules.
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Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans
What is the normal level of hemoglobin?
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Men: 13.5-18 g/dL Women: 12-16 g/dL
For a hemoglobin level, is a venous or arterial site used?
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Venous
What does a hemoglobin test show?
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The amount of hemoglobin available for combination with oxygen
What does a hematocrit test show?
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The ratio of RBCs to plasma. If it is high, this is indicative of polycythemia
What are the normal levels for a hematocrit?
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Men: 40-54% Women: 38-47%
Is a hematocrit level drawn from a venous or an arterial site?
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Venous
What arteries are typically used for an ABG?
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Through the radial or femoral arteries.
When obtaining an arterial blood gas from a patient, how long should you wait after an intervention (whether it's suctioning or a position change, etc.) to obtain the sample?
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20 minutes
After collecting an ABG, how long should you apply pressure to the collection site and why?
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For five minutes to prevent a hematoma from developing


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