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What diseases commonly cause acid-base imbalances? (3)
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Diabetes, COPD, kidney disease
_________ and ________ can cause acid-base imbalances as well as losses of fluid and electrolytes.
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Vomiting and diarrhea
The __________ are the essential buffer system for acids.
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Kidneys
Why are older adults more prone to acidosis?
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Their kidneys are less able to compensate for an acid load and they commonly have decreased respiratory function
What is the normal H+ concentration in body fluids?
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0.0004 mEq/L
When expressing H+ in pH, every increase of 1 (i.e. pH of 7 to pH of 8) equals a _________ increase.
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Tenfold
A person has acidosis when the blood pH is below...
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7.35
A person has alkalosis when the pH is above...
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7.45
What is the normal ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate in the body?
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One part carbonic to every 20 parts bicarbonate 1:20
How is acidemia different from acidosis?
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Acidemia is a blood pH of less than 7.35 Acidosis is the PROCESS of accumulating acids or elimination of base from the body
How is alkalemia different from alkalosis?
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Alkalemia is an arterial pH of more than 7.45 Alkalosis is the PROCESS of accumulating base or eliminating acid
An anion gap is a reflection of normally unmeasured anions in the plasma. It is useful for the differential diagnosis of ___________.
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Acidosis
The acceptor of hydrogen ions is called a _______.
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Base
The substance in the body that prevents a large change in pH is called...
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A buffer
The negative logarithm of the H+ concentration...
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pH
What are the three mechanisms used by the body to regulate acid-base balance?
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The buffer system, respiratory system and the renal system
Which acid-base regulatory system reacts to an imbalance immediately?
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The buffer system
Which acid-base regulatory system reacts to an imbalance within mimnutes?
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The respiratory system
Which acid-base regulatory system reacts to an imbalance within days, but accommodates a persistent imbalance indefinitely?
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The renal system
Which acid-base mechanism is the primary regulator?
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The buffer system
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate, monohydrogen-dihydrogen phosphate, and intracellular and plasma protein are examples of ________ in the body.
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Buffers (hemoglobin buffers are also part of this mechanism)
A _______ consists of a weakly ionized acid or base and its salt.
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Buffer
Which acid does the Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer neutralize?
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HCl (Hydrochloric acid)
Which part of the buffer system creates CO2 and water from acids?
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Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate
Which component of the buffer system creates NaCl, and sodium biphosphate (NaH2PO4) from acids and forms weaker bases and H2O from bases?
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Phosphate buffer
Which part of the buffer system creates CO2, Hydrogen ions (H+), Ammonia (NH3), OH- (hydroxide) and H2O?
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Intracellular and extracellular proteins
_________ is a part of the buffer system that shifts Chloride in and out of Red Blood cells in exchange for carbonate.
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Hemoglobin
The ______ acts as a buffer by shifting hydrogen in and out of the cell in exchange for other ions like K+.
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Cell
The _________ help maintain normal pH by excreting CO2 and water, which are by-products of cellular metabolism.
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Lungs
What is the rate of excretion of CO2 controlled by?
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The respiratory center in the Medulla in the brainstem


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