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What major anatomical structures comprise the pulmonary system?
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The upper airways (nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx), two lungs, the lower airways (bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli), blood vessels, and the thoracic cage.
There are _____ lobes in the right lung and ______ lobes in the left lung (how many)?
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There are three lobes in the right lung and two in the left lung.
The space between the lungs is called the ___________ and contains the heart, great vessels, and esophagus.
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Mediastinum
What structure connects the upper and lower conducting airways of the respiratory system?
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The larynx
What structures comprise the conducting airways of the pulmonary system?
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Upper airway structures: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx. The larynx connects the upper and lower airways. Lower airway structures: trachea, bronchi, carina, hila, and bronchioles.
What are the functions of the ciliated mucosa lining the upper airway of the respiratory system?
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It warms and humidifies the air breathed in while removing foreign particles as it passes into the lungs.
The ________ and _________ provide ventilation when the nose is obstructed or when demand for inspired air in increased (for example, during exercise).
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The mouth and oropharynx
The internal muscles of the _______ contract during swallowing to prevent tracheal aspiration. They also contribute to the pitch of one's voice.
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Larynx
The _________ is the structure that connects the larynx to the bronchi.
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Trachea
What is the carina?
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The area of the respiratory system where the trachea divides into the two main bronchi.
Aspirated fluids and/or foreign particles tend to enter the ______ side of the lung because it extends more vertically from the trachea.
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Right
What structure is the location where the right and left main bronchi enter the lungs?
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The hila
The _______ division of the lungs is the location of the terminal bronchioles.
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Sixteenth
What are the three layers of the bronchial walls?
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The epithelial lining, smooth muscle layer, and a connective tissue layer.
Which lining of the bronchial walls contains the goblet cells responsible for mucus secretion?
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The epithelial lining.
The epithelium of the larger airways is columnar _________, whereas the epithelium of the bronchioles is columnar _________.
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The larger airways have high columnar pseudostratified epithelium and the bronchioles have columnar cuboidal.
What is the function of the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory system?
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They rhythmically beat the mucus blanket in the bronchial epithelium to move trapped particles to the trachea and pharynx in order for it to be swallowed or expectorated (this is referred to as mucociliary clearance).
What structures of the respiratory system make up the gas-exchange airways?
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The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, often collectively referred to as the acinus.
Bronchioles are considered both conducting airways and gas exchange airways. The respiratory bronchioles (those that participate in gas exchange) are located between the ______ and ________ divisions.
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Sixteenth through the twenty-third divisions
How does the walls of the respiratory bronchioles (those that participate in gas exchange) differ from that of the conducting bronchioles?
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They have no cilia or goblet cells, very little smooth muscle fibers, and have a very thin, elastic connective tissue layer.
The ________ are the primary gas-exchange units of the lung.
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Alveoli
The _______ are the structures that permit collateral ventilation and even distribution of air within the alveoli by permitting some air to pass through the septa from alveolus to alveolus.
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Pores of Kohn
Type _____ alveolar cells provide the structure.
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Type I
Type _____ alveolar cells produce surfactant.
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Type II
_______ coats the inner surface of alveoli, allowing for expansion during inspiration. It also lowers surface tension at end-expiration, preventing lung collapse.
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Surfactant
What are the seven pulmonary defense mechanisms?
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The upper respiratory tract mucosa, nasal hairs/turbinates, mucous blanket, cilia, alveolar macrophages, irritant receptors in the nares, and irritant receptors in the trachea/large airways.
The phagocytes of the lungs are called _________.
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Alveolar macrophages
__________ are the cellular components of inflammation and immunity within the respiratory system. They are responsible for ingesting foreign material and preparing it for removal via the lymphatics.
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Alveolar macrophages
What are the primary functions of the pulmonary circulation?
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Facilitates gas exchange, delivers nutrients, serves as a reservoir for the left ventricle, and serves as a filtering system that removes clots, air and debris from circulation.
What is the normal mean pulmonary artery pressure? It is higher or lower than systemic circulation?
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The mean pulmonary artery pressure is 18 mmHg. It is much lower than system circulation (the aortic pressure is 90 mmHg).


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