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Fractures caused by weakened bone tissue are called _______ fractures.
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Pathological
The skull is an example of a _______ joint.
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Synostotic
The 1st sternocostal joint is an example of a _______ joint.
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Cartilaginous
When a _______ joint undergoes maximal growth, it ossifies.
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cartilaginous
Synchondrosis is another name for a _______ joint.
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cartilaginous
The _______ joint is a ligament or membrane uniting 2 bony surfaces.
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fibrous
Syndesmosis joint it another name for a _______ joint.
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Fibrous
The paired tibia and fibula are an example of a _______ joint.
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Fibrous
The _______ joint is a freely moveable joint in which contiguous bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and are connected by ligaments.
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Synovial true joint
_______ bones occur in clusters and permit movement of the extremities.
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Short bones
_______ bones, like the bones in the skull and the ribs in the thorax, provide structural contour.
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Flat bones
_______ bones make up the vertebral column and the mandible.
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Irregular bones
_______ represent the largest threat to bone health and functional independence of older individuals.
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Falls
_______ bones contribute to height and length.
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Long bones
How is metabolism impacted by immobility?
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Decreases GI function, decreases Ca resorption, decreases metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins leading to fluid, electrolyte and Ca imbalances.
What are the 4 general objectives of bed rest?
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1. Decrease physical activity and O2 needs. 2. Decrease pain. 3. Allowing ill or debilitated clients to rest. 4. Allowing exhausted clients to rest.
Clients with muscular dystrophy experience progressive, _______ weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle groups.
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symmetric
What are the cluster of symptoms referred to as the hazards of immobility ?
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Loss of muscle strength at a rate of 3% a day. Cardiovascular, skeletal and organ changes. Disuse atrophy (decrease in size and function of cells).
_______ joints are bones jointed by bones. No movement is associated with this type of joint.
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Synostotic
The best positioning strategies for any joint in order to decrease the risk of injury is?
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Supported, slightly flexed, with no pressure areas, in a 30 degree lateral position.
How should a patient with hemiplegia be supported and positioned while lying supine?
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The affected side should have a pillow under the shoulder, the affected arm should be positioned away from the body with the elbow extended and the palm placed up. The knees should be flexed in a 30 degree position.
_______ people are required to move a patient that is less than 200 lbs. and who is able to partially move themselves.
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Two to three
A patient with a spastic hand should have it positioned?
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With the wrist in a neutral position or slightly extended with the fingers and palm down
In a supported Fowler's position, the head of the bed is _______degrees.
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46 to 60 degrees
For a patient in a supported Fowler's position, where are pillows placed?
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At the lower back, under the thigh and under the ankles.
Where are pillows placed for a client in the supine position?
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Under the head, back, upper shoulders, trochanter, under the ankle, and under the arms.
A patient with a flaccid hand should have it positioned?
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With the wrist slightly extended with the fingers partially flexed
What is the difference between a Sims and a side-lying position?
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In the Sims position the patient is lying partially on their abdomen with their weight on the anterior ileum, humerus and clavicle. In the side lying position the client is fully on their side, at a 30 degree lateral position with the weight on their hip and shoulder.
Which clients require nursing supervision during transfers?
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Patients being transferred for the first time after a prolonged bed rest, surgery, those with a critical illness, or those with a spinal cord injury.
Hand rolls maintain the thumb in slight ______ and in opposition to the fingers.
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Adduction. They are used on clients with paralyzed arms or those who are unconscious


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