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Question Answer
If peristalsis is too fast, _______ stool is formed. If peristalsis is too slow, _______ stool is formed.
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Too fast = watery; Too slow = hard (constipation)
During an enema a client expresses pain. There is blood in the return fluid and rectal bleeding. You should...
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stop the instillation and obtain VS
A cleansing enema is ordered for a 55 year old.. The maximal amount of fluid given is...
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750-1000 mL
The greatest danger from diarrhea is the development of _______ and _______ imbalances.
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fluid and electrolyte
Ostomy skin barriers typically stay in place _______ days.
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3-7 days
Clients with ileostomies need to be on _______ diets to allow the small bowel to adapt to the diversion.
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low fiber (bread, noodles, rice, eggs, lean meats, fish, and poultry). After it heals, can eat whatever.
True or False? Enemas are used to irrigate left-sided colostomies.
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False. A special cone tipped irrigation is use. *Never use an enema.
Stool discharged from a stoma is called _______.
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FOBT is useful for screening for...
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colon cancer
How many FOBT tests must be performed for a confirmed (+) result?
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What foods can cause a false (+) FOBT?
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Red meat, poultry, fish; Vitamin C; Some raw veggies; Aspirin and NSAIDS
A _______ color indicates a (+) guaiac (FOBT).
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Blue (*read within 60 seconds)
What should a nurse focus her planning on for a patient with fecal incontinence?
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Protecting the skin, promoting continence, and lessening the embarrassment.
True or False? Stool softeners are no longer recommended for constipation.
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What type of cleansing enema should be used on children?
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What is the safest solution to use for a cleansing enema?
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normal saline
Which type of enema should not be done more than once because of the risk of circulatory overload?
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Tap water enema.
Clients unable to tolerate large volumes of fluid benefit from this type of enema...
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Hypertonic solution enemas should not be used on clients that are...
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dehydrated or infants
A soapsuds enema uses _______ soap. A high enema cleanses _______ and a low enema cleanses _______.
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pure castile soap; high = whole colon; low = rectum and sigmoid
Who should not be encouraged to use the Valsalva maneuver?
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Clients with cardiovascular disease, glaucoma, increased intracranial pressure, and/or a new surgical wound. *Can cause dysrhythmias and increase BP.
True or False? In a supine position it is impossible to contract the muscles used for defecation.
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True. This is why we should raise the head of the bed of a bed-ridden patient.
What causes paralytic ileus and how long does it last?
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Any surgery that involves direct manipulation of the bowel. Lasts 24-48 hours typically.
Which anesthetic agents (general) causes an increased risk of constipation?
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General and/or inhaled. *Not local or regional.
True or False? Food intolerance is the same thing as an allergy.
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Which clients are most at risk for fecal impactions?
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Those that are debilitated, confused or unconscious.
Chronic use of laxatives or cathartics can lead to what problems?
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Decreased muscle tone and stimulus response of large intestine. Serious diarrhea which leads to dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Mineral oil lessens fat soluble vitamin absorption. Decreases efficacy of other meds.
Alterations in elimination are often an early sign/symptom of problems in the _______ system.
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How many stool specimens are required for a (+) C-diff diagnosis?
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2-3 (*tested with ELISA)
An ileostomy results in stools that are _______.
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liquid and frequent

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