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Nursing In a Flash 
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Question Answer
What can cause a decrease in lung compliance?
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Pulmonary edema, interstitial or pleural fibrosis, kyphosis, fractured rib, etc.
_______ is the pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli in relation to the rate of flow of inspired gas.
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Airway resistance
What structure governs automatic control of respiration; occurs continuously...
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Medulla Oblongata
Pericardial pain = _______, Pleuritic pain = _______, and Musculoskeletal pain = _______.
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Pericardial pain = occurs when breathing and doesn't radiate. Pleuritic pain = radiates to scapular regions, knifelike feeling on inspiration. Musculoskeletal = happens after exercise, rib trauma, prolonged coughing when breathing in.
What alterations in older adults result in decreased cardiac function?
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Calcification of the conduction pathways. Thicker and stiffer heart valves due to lipid accumulation and fibrosis. Decrease in number of pacemaker cells in the SA node.
What are some acid-base imbalances that cause hyperventilation?
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Metabolic acidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Bradypnea = _______ Tachypnea = _______
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Bradypnea = 10 and Tachypnea = 35
...determines the ability of the lungs to efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Used to differentiate pulmonary obstruction from restrictive disease.
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PFT
_______ is the most common toxic inhalant decreasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
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Carbon monoxide
_______ occurs when secretions block a bronchiole or bronchus and the distal lung tissue collapses leading to hypoventilation.
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Atelectasis (alveolar collapse)
Inspiration is an active process, stimulated by chemoreceptor in the _______.
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aorta
Expiration is a passive process that depends on _______; requiring little or no muscle work.
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the elastic recoil properties of the lungs
Elevation of the _______ during inspiration can indicate ventilatory fatigue, air hunger or decreased lung expansion.
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clavicles
Nitroglycerin dilates _______ arteries, decreasing myocardial oxygen consumption and venous return. Nitroprusside dilates _______ arteries decreasing BP and afterload.
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Nitroglycerin - coronary; Nitroprusside - peripheral
What is the best diagnostic tool for cardiomyopathy?
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TEE
_______ can cause platelet and clotting factor VIII dysfunction if administered in a dose more than 1500 mL in a 24 hour period. (Volume expander)
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Hetastarch
_______ is a volume expander used for patients with excessive peripheral edema.
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25% albumin (*pulls fluid from interstitial space to vascular space)
What should be done if Dopamine infiltrates around a central line?
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Stop the infusion, keep the IV in, and administer Rigiditine.
Type of cardiomyopathy where the ventricles are stretched. Can be induced by pregnancy, substance abuse, pulmonary hypertension or genetics.
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Dilated (*most common reason for heart transplant).
CHF: Crackles, SOA, frothy pink sputum = _______ side. Peripheral edema, JVD, hepatomegaly, weight gain = _______ side.
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Left = SOA, crackles, cough, etc. Right = peripheral edema, weight increase, etc.
What conditions are medications like dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, Phenylephrine and vasopressin used to treat?
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Hypotension related to acute heart failure or shock.
If a patient is overdosed on Diltiazem, what is the antidote?
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IV calcium (it's a calcium channel blocker)
How is cardiogenic shock typically treated?
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Dopamine for vasoconstriction, Dobutamine for increased contractility ((+) inotrope), and intraaortic balloon pump.
_______ is the drug of choice to lower BP in hypertensive emergencies.
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Nitroprusside
Cool and pale or mottled extremities are a sign of increased _______.
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afterload
What part of oxygenation is impacted by anemia?
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Decreased oxygen carrying capacity and decreased hemoglobin is unable to transport required oxygen.
The major inspiratory muscle of respiration is the _______.
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diaphragm
Alveoli transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood through _______.
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the alveolar capillary membrane
The lungs transfer oxygen from the atmosphere to the _______; where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
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alveoli
_______ have the highest mortality rate from asthma.
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African American females


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