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Nursing In a Flash 
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Question Answer
What does ST segment depression indicate?
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Myocardial ischemia; *Reversible within 20 minutes.
How is an AICD different from a pacemaker?
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It can defibrillate as well as pace.
Role of sodium ions in cardiac conduction...
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Conducts depolarization (+) charges thru the myocardium. Essentially, generates a positive charge causing an upward deflection.
Role of calcium ions in cardiac conduction...
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Slow conduction thru the AV node; contraction of the myocardium.
Action Potentials/Refractory? Phase 0 = _______, Phase 1 = _______, Phase 2 = _______, Phase 3 = _______, Phase 4 = _______
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Phase 0 = depolarized, Phase 1 = repolarized: absolute refractory, Phase 2 = repolarized: absolute refractory, Phase 3 = repolarized: relative refractory, Phase 4 = Polarized, ready.
What does Phase 4 of the action potential represent?
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Polarization of the ventricles.
How is atrial fibrillation typically treated?
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Blood thinners (for cardioversion), if stable, Cardizem/calcium channel blocker, and possibly pacemaker.
Treats? Blood thinners like Heparin, Calcium channel blockers like Cardizem.
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A-fib
How is an unstable sinus bradycardia or 3rd degree AV block typically treated?
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PAED - Pacing, Atropine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
How is a stable sinus bradycardia, AV block, or 2 degree AV block typically treated?
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Monitor, possibly atropine.
What does an ST elevation indicate?
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Injury (MI)
What is an escape beat or escape rhythm?
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When a lower heart structure fires (essentially anything other than the SA node firing).
Which part(s) of the heart are affected by the parasympathetic nervous system?
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The atria.
Which wave form on the EKG corresponds to the atrial kick?
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PR interval
Which wave form on the EKG corresponds to atrial repolarization?
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QRS
Which wave form on the EKG represents the absolute refractory period?
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ST
Inherent automatically rates: SA node = _______, AV junction = _______, Bundles/Purkinje = _______.
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SA node = 60-100; AV junction = 40-60; Bundles/Purkinje = less than 40.
What is the path of cardiac conduction?
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SA node to AV node to Bundle to Purkinje.
What is the unique contraindication for the fibrinolytic streptokinase?
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Recent strep infection and previously dosed with streptokinase.
_______ is a highly antigenic thrombolytic and often causes fever. It can only be used once every 6 months.
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Streptokinase
A decision whether a patient is going to receive fibrinolytic therapy should be made within _______ of admission.
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30 minutes
How long after a person reports chest pain does a hospital have to start an EKG?
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10 minutes
For a patient with a STEMI, how long do you have? EKG_______, TPA decision_______, and Balloon/PCI_______
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EKG - 10 min., TPA - 30 min., and Balloon - 90 min.
What do phases 1,2 and 3 of the action potentials represent?
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Repolarization
How is Torsades de Point treated?
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Magnesium
What is PEA and how is it treated?
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Pulseless electrical activity. Look for the cause which can be: cardiac tamponade, hypothermia, hypoxia, etc. Treat cause.
Which method of heart rate measurement via EKG strip is the only way to measure irregular rhythms?
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Counting R intervals and multiplying by 10.
Which dysrhythmias can trigger R on T phenomenon (sustained ventricular tachycardia)?
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Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
What happens when P waves in junction rhythms?
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They are inverted due to retrograde conduction to the atria and can occur before, during or after a QRS depending on when the impulse arrived.
What is the electrical flow of the heart in junctional rhythms?
Show Answer
Ventricular conduction is normal, but the atria are depolarized via retrograde conduction.


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