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Nursing In a Flash 
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Question Answer
How are chemical burns initially treated?
Show Answer
Remove chemical from skin (may scrub with soft brush to remove alkaline agent); Remove clothing; and Water lavage.
What changes to K+ occur as a result of burns?
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Injured cells and hemolyzed RBCs release K+ into extracellular spaces leading to hyperkalemia. Then, K+ shifts and decreases K+ leading to hypokalemia.
Tissue destruction related to a chemical burn can occur up to _______ hours after the initial injury.
Show Answer
72 hours
How can the liver or kidneys be damaged from an external chemical burn?
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The substance can be absorbed into the circulation and cause damage as it's detoxified or excreted.
What are the 2 commonly used guides to determine the extent of burns?
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Lund-Browder Chart (most accurate) and Rule of 9's (good for initial adult assessment).
_______ is an electrolyte imbalance that can occur following successful fluid replacement due to improper tube feedings of burn patients.
Show Answer
Acute phase (hypernatremia)
A good time for exercise of a burn patient is during _______.
Show Answer
wound cleaning
Depth? Involves Dermis. Moist, pink, painful, blisters, blanches. 10-21 days healing time.
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Deep partial-thickness
What should staff wear when caring for patients with open burn wounds?
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Disposable hats, masks, gown, and gloves.
Chemical burns result from tissue injury caused by...
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acids, alkalis, and organic compounds.
Depth? Requires skin grafting...
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Full thickness
What wound care method is used for facial burn?
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Open method (topical ointment only).
How is corneal burns treated?
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Antibiotic ointment (*note patient may be frightened by periorbital edema).
How should hands and arms be positioned for burn patients?
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Extended and elevated on pillows or slings to prevent contractures.
How are small thermal burns initially treated?
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Cover with clean, cool tap water (dampened towel).
What are the 3 major types of inhalation injuries?
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CO poisoning, injury above glottis, and injury below glottis.
What are clues a patient has an inhalation injury above the glottis?
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Facial burns, soot around the mouth/nose, singed nose hair, hoarseness, painful swallowing, dark nasal/oral membranes, and stridor.
Inhalation injury _______ the glottis causes tracheal or bronchial constriction and alveolar damage.
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What are the clinical manifestations seen during the emergent phase of burns?
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Shock (pain and hypovolemia), blisters, shivering, and altered mental status.
What drugs are commonly used in the treatment of burn patients?
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Morphine (increased doses, 10 mg not uncommon), deluded, haloperidol, Ativan, versed, tetanus shot, sulfamylon, and silvadene.
How is an inhalation injury below the glottis treated?
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Bronchoscopy within 6-12 hours. If interstitial edema, endotracheal intubation.
The emergent phase of burns begins with _______ and ends with _______. It lasts _______ hours.
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fluid loss and edema; fluid mobilization and diuresis; lasts 24-48 hours
What are the major complications during the acute phase of burns?
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Infection, decreased ROM, contractures, paralytic ileus/Curling's ulcer, and hyperglycemia.
Burn location: Face, neck, chest - _______, Hands, feet, joints, eyes - _______, and Ears, nose - _______.
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face, neck, chest - respiratory obstruction; hands, feet, joints, eyes - self-care; ears, nose - infection.
What patient risk factors can contribute to delayed recovery from burns?
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Alcoholism, drug abuse, malnutrition, concurrent fractures, head injuries, and trauma.
What changes to Na+ occur as a result of burns?
Show Answer
Shifts into interstitial spaces and remains there until edema formation ceases.
What are the characteristics of hypovolemic shock associated with burns?
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Decreased albumin, edema, increased HR, decreased BP, increased hematocrit, increased Na+, increased, then decreased K+, WBC changes.
What can cause increased K+ in a burn patient during the acute phase?
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Renal failure, adrenocortical insufficiency, and massive deep muscle injury.
What Electrolyte Imbalance? Dysrhythmias, ventricular failure, weakness, and ECG changes.
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Patients with electrical burns are at most risk for:
Show Answer
dysrhythmias, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria (leads to renal failure).

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