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Nursing In a Flash 
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What disease? Bacteria gets in the blood thru dental work or IV use. Bacteria gets stuck in a fibrin clot and the body cannot get to it to eliminate it. Common causes: s. aureus and s. viridans. Vegetation.
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Infectious Endocarditis
How does an increased BP cause problems?
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Causes damage to endothelial cells of blood vessels; capillaries, leak, causing edema; and proteins leak out, taking H20 with it (which decreases BP).
What disease? Murmur, (+) blood culture, Janeway's lesions, Osler's nodes, splinter hemorrhages and petechiae...
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Infective Endocarditis
What are common causes of infective Endocarditis?
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s. aureus and s. viridians
What parts of the heart get infected by Infective Endocarditis?
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Mitral and aortic valves, almost exclusively on the left side of the heart.
What are the effects of Peripheral Vascular Disease?
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Sets patients up for infection; the feet become calloused and can easily crack. The cracks become portals of entry for bacteria. This makes a small cut a serious problem, possibly resulting in amputations.
What are causes of aortic insufficiency?
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Rheumatic heart disease, atherosclerosis, endocarditis, often idiopathic.
What are factors linked to essential hypertension?
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Family history, hyperlipidemia, African American, diabetes, obesity, aging, stress, excessive smoking, alcohol ingestion.
What is secondary hypertension?
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Hypertension cases related to renal and endocrine disorders.
Aneurysms cause _______ which increases the risk of _______.
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turbulent flow; increased risk of endothelial damage and rupture (dissection)
At the end of systole, there is approximately _______ mL of blood in the heart.
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50 mL (called end-systolic volume) Note: not all blood is ejected.
What are 7 common characteristics of stable cardiac ischemia?
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transient; reversible and predictable; heaviness/pressure in chest; pain that radiates to jaw, arm, left shoulder; pallor; diaphoresis; rest and nitroglycerin relieves symptoms. *Symptoms may vary.
How does malignant hypertension affect: Eyes? Brain? Heart? Kidney?
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Eyes: blurred vision; Brain: changes in mental status, n/v, headache, numbness, seizure; Heart: chest pain, signs and symptoms of heart failure; Kidney: oliguria.
What is insufficiency/ regurgitation?
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Heart valves cannot close fully; valves are loose, dilated and deformed; blood flows retrograde (backward); causes dilation of chamber before the valve.
Chronic venous insufficiency results from a prolonged condition of _______ venous circulation.
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incompetent (*occurs in a period of months to years)
How does a PE lead to RHF?
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It increases the resistance the heart has to work against to push blood past the clot causing it to hypertrophy and eventually leads to HF.
What causes mitral insufficiency/regurgitation?
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Rheumatic heart disease; atherosclerosis; Marfan's; mitral valve prolapse; endocarditis.
What two hormones are useful in detecting heart failure?
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ANP: atrial natriuretic peptide; and BNP: brain natriuretic peptide. Increased levels can be indicative of heart failure.
How does the atrium of the heart help regulate BP?
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ANP is released in response to fluid overload in the kidneys; stimulates kidneys to increase the glomerular filtration rate, increase the elimination of Na+ and H20; also causes vasodilation and inhibits renin and aldosterone secretions.
ACE inhibitors work better in _______.
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Caucasians
What causes the red-brownish discoloration of stasis dermatitis?
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Blood degradation products (like from bruising) stay in the area.
Where does the most damage from atherosclerosis occur?
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The very small arteries of the heart, especially where they branch.
How is PAD diagnosed?
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Brachial artery index is compared to BP at ankle; .8 is norm, less = arterial disease.
What are 6 characteristics of left side heart failure?
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Systolic and/or diastolic failure; decreased contractility causing ventricular remodeling; increased preload (LV end diastolic volume); increased afterload (LV end diastolic pressure); decreased renal perfusion; and increased renin and angiotensin.
What happens during decompensation?
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1. Left ventricle has more blood at the end of diastole due to increased preload, increased volume and increased resistance. 2. Blood backs up intro left atrium, there's no valves between the left atrium and pulmonary vein so it eventually goes to the
What is the ultimate result of heart failure?
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Pulmonary edema (*alveoli are drowning in fluids which leads to drowning systemically).
Heart failure is a _______ syndrome.
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complex clinical syndrome, not a specific disease
What conditions can cause myocardial ischemia (general, 5)?
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Increased resistance to blood flow in coronary arteries (blockage); Decrease in circulating volume; Increase in metabolic demands (like when exercising); Decrease in O2 carried to tissues; and Decrease in ventricular filling time.
What is a PAC?
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Type of premature complex; premature atrial contraction.
What is cardiac output?
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Stroke volume x heart rate; Essentially, how much blood is pumped out in one minute.


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