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Question Answer
What are manifestations of hypothermia?
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Peripheral shunting of blood, decreased metabolic rate, decreased CO2 which leads to decreased respiration, and hypoxia (at this point not reversible).
What is malignant hyperthermia?
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The hypothalamus permanently resets to a increased temperature.
What are signs and symptoms of hyperthermia?
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Reddish skin tinge, increased pulse, n/v, weakness, dizziness, loss of consciousness.
Hyperthermia is a body temp over _______. It is typically not a response to a _______.
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over 106; not a response to a pyrogen
What is the danger with hyperthermia?
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The hypothalamus will reset to the increased temp as baseline. Results in death.
What are some causes of hyperthermia?
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Heat cramps which lead to exhaustion and stroke, usually response to overheating, dehydration.
Heat _______ is life threatening.
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Stroke
People with heat _______ will have increased body temp. Cooling them helps.
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exhaustion
Why is it difficult for infants to control body temperature?
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High ratio of body surface to body weight, lose a lot thru head, and little body fat for insulation.
Why are the elderly more likely to be too cool?
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Decreased blood circulation, decreased skin integrity, decreased body fat, decreased baseline metabolism, decreased shivering/vasoconstrictive response, decreased sweat, decreased hot/cold perception.
Losing sodium and fluids in extreme heat can result in heat _______.
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cramps
Hypersomnia sleep apnea is characterized by _______ and is a/an _______ airway obstruction.
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snoring; upper
The elderly spend less time in stage _______ sleep.
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3 and 4
What is the usual cause for obstructive sleep apnea?
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Obesity. Fat compresses the lungs.
Sleep apnea is essentially decreases _______ which leads to poor sleep patterns.
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oxygen
What are the problems that result from sleep apnea?
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Daytime hypercapnea which leads to sleepiness; frequent O2 deprivation which leads to polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right sided CHF, dysrhythmias, and liver congestion.
The _______ is very involved with sleep.
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hypothalamus
Illness involving skin, mouth and lymph nodes; usually affects kids under 5...
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Kawasaki
What are signs and symptoms of HUS?
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GI disturbance, anemia (bruising/pallor), pallor, oliguria, acidosis, hypertension, azotemia, hyperkalemia.
What causes HUS?
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Bacterial and viral agents, e. coli endotoxins.
Occlusion of which cranial artery is the most common... and devastating?
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Middle Cerebral Artery
The _______ artery is located on the lateral aspect of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes.
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Middle Cerebral Artery
An occlusion of the middle cerebral artery would result in...
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Aphasia (no speech) in dominant hemisphere and contralateral hemiplegia; affects everything... movement, sensation (particularly in the face and arms).
If a patient is complaining of headache, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light and there's blood (RBCs) in the CSF, this indicates...
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a subarachnoid hemorrhage
A _______ hemorrhage manifests with signs and symptoms of increased ICP (headache, n/v, decreased LOC, motor deficits) and will also involve neck stiffness, photophobia, a (+) Kernig sign and (+) Brudzinski sign.
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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Subdural hemorrhage = _______ bleed. Epidural hemorrhage = _______ bleed.
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Subdural = venous bleed; Epidural = arterial bleed
Characteristic of ? Initial rupture leads to LOC. They seem okay. They rupture again, bleed very quickly and die.
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Epidural hemorrhage
Intracranial aneurysms occur most commonly between the ages of _______.
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30-60. Women in their 50's is peak incidence.
A _______ hemorrhage is bleeding between the arachnoid mater and the dura mater. It is a slow developing venous bleed.
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Subdural
A _______ hemorrhage is bleeding between the dura mater and the skull. It is an arterial bleed resulting in quick blood loss.
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Epidural


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