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The dermis is comprised of _______ and supports the nerve and vascular network.
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Collagen bundles
The subcutaneous layer of the integumentary system is composed of _________.
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Fat and loose connective tissue
What are the two major types of epidermal cells?
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Keratinocytes (majority) and the melanocytes
Melanocytes are housed in the stratum ___________ of the epidermis, also known as the basal layer.
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Stratum Germinativum
What is the function of melanocytes?
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To give color to the skin and hair and protect the body from UV light
__________ are epidermal cells that are synthesized in the basal layer and move to the surface where they flatten and die to form the stratum corneum (outer layer).
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Keratinocytes
Keratin is a fibrous protein produced by keratinocytes that is vital for __________.
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The protective barrier function of the skin
Changes in _______ account for many skin problems, such as psoriasis.
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Cell cycle
What is the function of the dermis?
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It assists in regulation of body temperature and blood pressure
Which layer of the dermis is responsible for the formation of fingerprints?
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Papillary layer
_________ forms the greatest part of the dermis and is responsible for the mechanical strength of the skin.
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Collagen
The primary cell type of the dermis is the __________.
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Fibroblast
Fibroblasts produce collagen and elastin fibers and are important for _________.
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Wound healing
Where are nerves, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles and sebaceous glands located in the integumentary system?
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In the dermis
T/F Subcutaneous tissue lies beneath the dermis and is part of the skin.
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False. It is not part of the skin, it lies directly beneath the dermis attaches skin to underlying bone and muscle
What are the functions of subcutaneous tissue?
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It attaches skin to underlying muscle and bone, provides insulation, stores lipids, regulates temperature and provides shock absorption
What structures are considered skin appendages?
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Hair, nails, sebaceous, eccrine and apocrine glands
The ________ layer develops skin appendages and the ________ layer provides nutrients, electrolytes, and fluids.
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Epidermis develops them, dermis feeds them
What places on the body grow no hair?
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The lips, palms of the hands and soles of the feet
Nails grow from the matrix, also called the _______.
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Lunula (crescent shaped area of the nail)
How long does a fingernail that has been lost from trauma take to regrow? How about a toenail?
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3-6 months for a fingernail, 12 months for a toenail
While inspecting the hands and nails of an African American patient, the doctor indicates the patient has melanonychea striata. You know this means...
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He has seen pigmented longitudinal bands that are present in 90% of all people with dark skin
Sweat glands are more scientifically known as...
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Apocrine and Eccrine glands
What are the major functions of sebaceous glands?
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To produce sebum which prevents the skin and hair from becoming dry and has mild bacteriostatic properties
Where are sebaceous glands located?
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Everywhere but the soles of feet and palms of the hands. They are most concentrated on the face, back, scalp & upper chest.
What regulates sebum production and secretion?
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Sex hormones, particularly testosterone
Where are apocrine glands located?
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Axillae, breast areola, umbilical and anogenital areas, external auditory canals and eyelids. These are the stinky glands.
When do apocrine glands become active?
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At puberty
Where are eccrine glands located?
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Everywhere except for a few places like the lips.
What is the function of eccrine glands?
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To cool the body through evaporation, excrete waste products through the pores of the skin, and to moisturize surface cells.


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