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What are two easy ways to prevent urinary system infections?
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Good perineal hygiene and fluid intake (2,000-2,500 mL)
Why does adding proteins like meat and eggs, or fruits like cranberries and prunes decrease urinary infections?
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They increase urine acidity which inhibits microorganisms.
Incontinence that occurs when your pants aren't unzipped in time is called...
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Functional incontinence
Loss of urine with increased intraabdominal pressure; happens with coughing, sneezing, lifting...
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Stress incontinence
A type of incontinence characterized by urinary urgency; bladder spasms...
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Urge incontinence
An intermittent catheter with a curved tip; used on patients with BPH...
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Inserting a catheter is a sterile procedure requiring _______ technique.
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Catheter size? Children _______, Women _______, and Men _______
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Children = 8-10 Fr, Women = 14-16 Fr, Men = 16-18 Fr
Plastic catheters are recommended for _______ use.
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Latex catheters are recommended for use up to _______.
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3 weeks (*watch for allergies)
What are the physical concerns related to urinary incontinence?
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Skin breakdown
What is the most common health care associated infection?
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_______ or _______ are types of medications that often cause urinary retention.
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Antihistamines; anticholinergics (atropine)
A feeling of pressure, discomfort, tenderness over the pubic symphysis bone, restlessness and diaphoresis are indicative of urinary _______.
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What are the key signs of acute retention?
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Bladder distention and absence of urine output over several hours.
_______ is often a sign of renal alterations.
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What fluids directly affect urine formation?
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Coffee, tea, cocoa and cola (caffeine).
_______ inhibits the release of ADH, resulting in increased water loss in urine.
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A co morbid condition with renal alternations is...
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anemia (*cannot produce sufficient erythropoietin)
_______ is a sign of glomerular injury.
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What are the disadvantages of an ileal conduit or reservoir?
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Local irritation and skin breakdown; If urine outflow is obstructed, irreversible damage to the kidneys occurs from chronic infection or hydronephrosis.
...the placement of a tube directly into the kidneys to drain urine...
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Most people void an average of _______.
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five times a day
An indwelling catheter places a client at risk for...
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infection, catheter blockage, and skin care problems. (*monitor I and O)
Bleeding from _______ causes dark red urine.
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kidneys or ureters
What is uremic syndrome?
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An increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood, marked fluid and electrolyte imbalances leads to n/v, headache, coma and convulsions. *life-threatening
Bleeding from _______ causes bright red urine.
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bladder or urethra
Dark amber urine can be a sign of _______ dysfunction.
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liver dysfunction
All urine specimens should be labeled with:
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Client's name, date and time of collection.
_______ precautions are necessary during urine specimen handling.
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