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Nursing In a Flash 
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Question Answer
This type of necrosis impacts the lungs. Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Resembles clumped cheese, soft and granular.
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Caseous (liuquefactive and coagulative)
Dry lung drowning is caused by the _______ response, resulting in extreme bronchoconstriction.
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Vagal
Pulmonary emboli commonly arise from the deep veins in the _______ and _______ .
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thighs and calf
It takes a lot of ________ to reinflate the alveoli once they've collapsed. A _______ to help the patient.
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pressure; incentive spirometer
Atelectasis increases the risk of ...
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Pneumonia; stagnant areas are ripe for bacterial infections.
What happens in a pulmonary embolism?
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Blood is occluded; Increased V/Q ratio/perfusion problem; and not much blood can get to the alveoli to get oxygen and perfuse it to the rest of the body.
What are signs and symptoms of bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
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Chronic hypoxemia; hypercapnea; increased work to breath; bronchospasm; mucus plugging; and pulmonary HTN leads to RHF.
What causes bronchopulmonary dysplasia?
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Premature birth; immature lungs; Increased inspired oxygen; (+) pressure ventilation; and infections
What is a flail chest?
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An instability of a portion of the chest that occurs from serious trauma like an accident, ribs are broken, etc. Paradoxical movement of the chest (1 side sinks in when they breath in).
Fluid is accumulated in the pleural space, most likely from an infection...
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Pleural effusion
What is a tension pneumothorax?
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A complication of an open pneumothorax. Whatever caused the seal to break creates a flap that makes a one-way valve causing air to accumulate with each breath. Pleural space grows and impinges on heart and trachea.
How is acute epiglottis treated?
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Emergency airway and antibiotics.
What are signs and symptoms of respiratory distress in children?
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Nasal flaring; grunting; and intercostal muscle retraction.
If a V/Q ratio is low, it's a _______ problem.
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ventilation
_______ is the most common type of lung cancer in non-smoking women.
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Adenocarcinoma
What are symptoms of a pulmonary embolism?
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Sudden apprehension; SOB; chest pain; rapid pulse; cough with blood sputum; syncope; and diaphoresis.
What are signs and symptoms of emphysema?
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Dyspnea on exertion; think; decreased FEVI (less than 70%); barrel chest; tripod positioning, leaned forward; pursed lips; Increased FRC, RV and TLC; dark areas and flattening on x-ray.
How is RDS treated?
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Mechanical ventilation; surfactant admin; glucocorticoid admin to women to women in pretermlabor.
How does smoking lead to emphysema?
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Smoking leads to the breakdown of elastin in the septa which leads to the loss of recoil (can't push air out) which leads to hyperinflation of the lungs which leads to increased RV.
What happens in atelectasis?
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The lungs collapses causing incomplete expansion of the alveoli. That part of the lung becomes non-functional.
Atelectasis is an indication of ...
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a disease state, it isn't a condition on it's own, it's a symptom.
What are signs and symptoms of a closed pneumothorax?
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SOA; no lung sounds on affected side; anxiety; unconscious (maybe); and cyanosis.
In a ventilation problem _______ is coming to the area there's no _______ because of a problem with the _______.
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blood; oxygen; lungs
High V/Q ratio = _______ problem ...
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perfusion
What are signs and symptoms of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)?
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Tachynpnea; expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and dusky skin.
_______ can produce ADH from the lung. It's rapidly growing, rapidly metastasizes. Poor prognosis.
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Small cell/oat cell carcinoma.
_______ gene is present in 90% of people with small/oat cell carcinoma?
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A mutated P53 tumor suppressor gene.
What are common signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism?
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Dyspnea, tachypnea, V/Q mismatch (Increased ratio), chest pain, cough, apprehension, diaphoresis, crackles, low grade fever, signs and symptoms of RHF (systemic edema).
In a perfusion problem, blood is _______, usually by a _______ .
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Occluded, pulmonary embolism
What are signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax?
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Life threatening, no breath sounds, tracheal deviations, SOA, anxious, cyanosis, and may be unconscious.


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