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What are signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?
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painless hematuria, daytime frequency, nocturia, urgency, urge incontinence, and flank pain.
How is vesicoureteral reflux treated?
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if small may spontaneously correct; surgery
Very painful kidney stones are either _______ or located in the _______ urinary tract.
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the bigger they get, the more painful they are; painful when they reach the lower urinary tract.
What are the 5 main functions of the kidneys?
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regulate volume and composition of ECF (filtration, reabsorption, secretion), rerun secretion/BP control, produce erythropoietin, activate vitamin D, and acid-base balance.
What conditions increase the likelihood of calcium stones?
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bone cancer, hyperparathyroidism, small intestine disease
_______ is damage to the renal tubule cells. Caused by surgery, drugs or myoglobinemia.
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Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
A syndrome of renal failure including increased blood urea and creatinine levels. Fatigue, n/v, anorexia, uremic frost, pruritis, and neuro changes...
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uremia; can result from missed dialysis.
What is oliguria (specifically)?
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Less than 30 mL per hour, less than 240 mL per 8 hours, and less than 400 mL per day.
What are risk factors for stress incontinence?
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Female, mom, fat, old, and chronic cough.
_______ incontinence is the most common type.
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Diseases of the _______ increase the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones.
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small intestine
Pyelonephritis is an ascending infection that impacts...
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kidneys (renal pelvis, calyces, medulla)
Below the level of the kidneys...
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Post renal
_______ means increased serum urea and creatinine levels.
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Azotemia (especially urea)
Who is most likely to get malignant urinary tract growths?
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Men, African Americans, 50-60%. Make up 85% of cases
Explain the Renin Angiotensin System...
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Decreased blood volume or decreased Na+ to the glomerular cells. Release of Renin. Renin converted to Angiotensin I by angiotensinogen. Angiotensin I gets converted to Angiotensin II (lungs). Angiotensin II acts on blood vessels and adrenal cortex (se
Normal urine output is ______ml/hr or _______ to _______ a day.
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35 ml/hr or 1000-1200 ml
Costal Vertebral Angle (CVA) tenderness can determine...
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how far up the bacteria has ascended.
What are the progressive forms of glomerulonephritis?
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sub acute; crescentic; extra capillary
What are the signs and symptoms of UTI in children?
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Restlessness; irritability; enuresis; fever; and foul smelling urine.
What causes vesicoureteral reflux?
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The sphincter from the ureter to the bladder is ineffective causing retrograde flow of bladder urine into the ureters.
How is enuresis treated?
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Control fluids; bed alarms; and desmopressin.
The inflammation and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane in the kidney that serves as the filter separating waste and fluid from blood.
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What can cause a bladder outlet obstruction?
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BPH; ureteral strictures
What are risk factors for bladder cancer?
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Smoking, history of chronic bladder inflammation, family history, industrial chemicals, old, caucasian, and male.
Urolithiasis can cause obstructions in the _______ urinary tract.
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upper or lower urinary tract
What are the different types of kidney stones?
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Calcium oxylate/phosphate; struvite; uric acid; and cystine.
If a kidney stone is greater than _______, it will require medical intervention.
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Vesicoureteral reflex is often congenital and can lead to _______.
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What are signs and symptoms of a nephrotic syndrome?
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Massive proteinuria; edema; hypoalbuminemia; hyperlipidemia; lipiduria; and decreased vitamin D.

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