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What are the 8 components of the external structure of the eye?
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Eyelids, eyebrows, eyelashes, lacrimal system, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, and extraocular muscles.
What are the 5 internal structures of the eye?
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Iris, lens, ciliary body, choroid and retina.
Where does the visual information refracted onto the retina get processed as an image?
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The occipital cortex
What makes up the outer layer of the eyeball?
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The sclera and the cornea
What is the middle layer of the eyeball called and what is in it?
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It is the uveal tract and is made up of the iris, choroid body and ciliary body.
What makes up the innermost layer of the eyeball?
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The retina
Where is the anterior chamber of the eyeball located?
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Between the iris and the posterior surface of the cornea.
Where is the posterior chamber of the eyeball located?
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Between the anterior surface of the lens and the posterior surface of the iris
What does the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeball contain?
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Aqueous humor secreted by the ciliary body
Where is the vitreous cavity located?
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Behind the lens and retina
What structures does light pass through in order to reach the retina?
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The cornea, aqueous humor, lens and vitreous.
What structure of the eye is most responsible for the majority of light refraction needed for clear vision?
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The cornea
What is the function of aqueous humor?
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It bathes and nourishes the lens and endothelium of the cornea.
What is glaucoma?
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Excess production or decreased outflow of aqueous humor that increases the intraocular pressure above normal (10 mm-21 Hg).
What structures support the ocular lens and keep it in place?
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Zonules
What is the function of the ocular lens?
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To bend light rays, allowing them to fall on the retina.
Accommodation, a process that allows a person to focus on near objects, is possible through modification of the lens shape. The ________ are the structures that make this occur.
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Zonules
Vitreous becomes more ___________ with aging.
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Liquid (it is normally a gelatinous substance)
Light passing through the vitreous may be blocked by any ___________ within the vitreous.
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Nontransparent substance
__________ is the ability of the eye to bend light rays so they fall on the retina.
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Refraction
What is emmetropia?
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It means that light is refracted and focused exactly on the retina
What is a refractive error?
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When light isn't focused properly on the retina (in front of it, behind it, etc.)
What is myopia?
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Near-sightedness
What is hyperopia?
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Farsightedness
__________ is caused by an uneveness of the cornea, which results in visual distortion.
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Astigmatism
__________ is a form of hyperopia that occurs as a normal process of aging, usually around 40.
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Presbyopia
Images refracted on the left side of BOTH eyes form the (left or right?) optic tract and travel to the (left or right?) occipital cortex.
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Left optic tract, left side of the occipital cortex
Images refracted on the right side of BOTH eyes form the (left or right?) optic tract and travel to the (left or right?) occipital cortex.
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Right optic tract, right side of the occipital cortex
Describe the path of an image through the visual pathway...
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Eye, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, optic radiation, to the occipital lobe (visual cortex)
What crosses over at the optic chiasm?
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The visual fibers closest to the nose cross over to the other side, allowing for only the images on the left side of the eye to travel one optic tract and the images on the right side of the eye to travel down another.


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