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A protein-deficient diet results in...
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Kwashiorkor
What is the leading cause of death in the world?
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Infectious Diarrhea
Diarrhea in which the volume of feces is increased is called ______. ______ is diarrhea in which the volume of feces isn't increased.
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Large Volume diarrhea = Increased feces and small volume diarrhea = no increase in feces
A nonabsorbable substance in the intestine draws excess water in and increases stool weight and volume. Produces large volume diarrhea.
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Osmotic diarrhea
Lactase and pancreatic enzyme deficiency and excessive ingestion of synthetic, nonabsorbable sugars can cause _______ diarrhea.
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Osmotic
Excessive mucosal secretion of fluid and electrolytes produces large volume diarrhea or small volume diarrhea depending on the pathology...
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Secretory diarrhea
Bacterial enterotoxins, neoplasms, or exotoxins from overgrowth of c.diff following antibiotics can cause _______ diarrhea.
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Secretory (large volume)
Food is not mixed properly, digestion is impaired and motility is increased ...
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Motility diarrhea
Inflammatory disorders of the intestine like ulcerative colitis or Chrons' or a fecal impaction are causes of _______ diarrhea.
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Secretory diarrhea (small volume)
More than _______ stools per day is considered abnormal.
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3
What is hiatal hernia?
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A herniation of the stomach above the diaphragm and into the thorax.
What are the signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia?
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Can be asymptomatic; GERD; dysphasia and substernal pain after meals.
Hiatal hernias and pyloric obstructions are both upper or lower GI obstructions.
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Upper GI
Kwashiorkor = _______ deficiency Marasmus = _______ deficiency.
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K = protein deficiency and M = lack of all nutrients.
Kwashiorkor is caused by a lack of dietary _______ which leads to decreased protein synthesis.
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Amino acids
What are the effects of Kwashiorkor's?
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Growth impairment; edema; apathy; enlarged abdomen; decreased serum albumin and peripheral edema.
Marasmus is caused by a diet poor in _______ and _______.
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Protein and calories
What are the effects of Marasmus?
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Decreased fat and muscle stores, emaciated, decreased heart rate, decreased growth, anemia, and no sub Q fat.
_______ is an inflammation due to the erosion of the surface epithelium secondary to damage of the mucosal barrier.
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Gastritis
Gastritis is a(n) acute or chronic condition and permanent or transient?
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Acute and transient
_______ gastritis involves a thinning and degeneration of the stomach.
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Chronic gastritis
_______ are most commonly cholesterol stones.
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Cholelithiasis
_______ is an inflammation caused by a blockage of the gallbladder in the cystic duct.
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Cholecystitis
What are the signs and symptoms of cholecystitis?
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Fever; pain; abdominal muscle guarding; increased serum bilirubin; and increased alkaline phosphatase.
_______ polyps with dysplasia increases the chances of getting colon cancer.
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Larger polyps
What are risk factors for colon cancer?
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Over 50; high fat/low fiber diet; cigarettes; fat; family history of cancer or polyposis; sedentary; and history of colitis or Chron's.
What are early signs and symptoms of colon cancer?
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Lower GI bleeding; change in bowel habits; and positive fecal occult blood test.
What are late signs of colon cancer?
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Pain; palpable mass; anemia; nausea/vomiting; and abdominal distention.
Celiac disease is also called...
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Gluten sensitive enteropathy
What is the pathology of celiac disease?
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Gluten damages villi of the bowel causes mucosa of the upper GI tract loses epithelium which causes malabsorption of nutrients.


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