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Question Answer
T/F The GI system is the most immature system at birth.
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True
The infant does not have voluntary control over swallowing until about ______of age.
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6 weeks
What is the stomach capacity of newborns?
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Only 10-20 mL, hence the need for frequent feedings.
Why do infants frequently regurgitate stomach contents?
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Their LES isn't fully developed until at least 1 month of age
What is the leading cause of illness in children under the age of five?
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Acute diarrhea
What is the most common result of a GI illness in the pediatric population?
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Dehydration
At what age does a child's GI tract typically become fully mature?
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2 years old
At what age does a child's level of hydrochloric acid production reach that of adult levels?
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Age 6 months
T/F It isn't a normal finding if you palpate an infant's liver 2 cm below the right costal margin.
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False, the liver is 5% of the infant's body weight and is usually easily palpated
At what age does an infant produce adult levels of pancreatic enzymes?
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Age 2
T/F In a child under the age of 2, extracellular fluid makes up half of their total body water.
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True.
Fever increases fluid loss at a rate of ____mL/kg/24 hour period for every sustained 1 degree celcius rise in temperature.
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7 mL
You are assessing a child and note pale skin and lips. You know this is a sign of what GI complication?
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Dehydration
During inspection of an infant's abdomen, ________ may indicate an abdominal or vascular obstruction, or distention.
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Distended veins
A _________ abdomen can suggest the presence of ascites, fluid retention, gas or a tumor.
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Protuberant
What could cause a depressed or concave abdomen in a child?
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High abdominal obstructions or dehydration
What are usually the earliest signs of mental status changes in a child?
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Irritability/lethargy
________ bowel sounds may be noted in children with diarrhea or gastroenteritis.
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Hyperactive
________ bowel sounds may indicate an obstructive process and warrants immediate physician notification.
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Hypoactive or absent
To chart bowel sounds as absent in the pediatric population, you must auscultate bowel sounds for _______.
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5 minutes
T/F For a child with diarrhea, the best treatments are fluids and anti-diarrheal agents.
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False, fluids are the best treatment. Anti-diarrheal agents should never be given without a physician's order
________ is either an increase in frequency or a decrease in consistency of stool.
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Diarrhea
________ is the leading cause of death for children worldwide.
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Gastroenteritis (acute diarrhea)
What type of organism is the most common cause of diarrhea?
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Viruses
________ cause diarrhea by inuring the absorptive surface of the mature villous cells, resulting in decreased fluid absorption and disaccharidase deficiency.
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Viruses
________ cause diarrhea by directly invading the mucosa and damaging the villou surface or by releasing toxins.
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Bacteria
What are the four common risk factors for acute diarrhea (gastroenteritis)?
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Recent ingestion of undercooked meat, foreign travel, daycare attendance or well water use.
Chronic diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts longer than...
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2 weeks
What characteristic(s) is/are associated with clostridium difficile cases in the pediatric population?
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Immunosuppression or other chronic illness
What is the priority intervention for children with gastroenteritis?
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Fluid rehydration therapy


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