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What is the most common type of thermal injury in children aged 4 and younger?
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Scalding injuries (followed by contact burns and flame burns)
What are the most common sources of burns in children aged 6 months old to 2 years old?
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Hot liquids and hot foods
Tissue injury resulting from an excessive exposure to thermal, chemical, electrical or radioactive agents…
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Burn
What are the factors that determine the extent of injury from a burn?
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The type, duration, and intensity of the agent and the part of the body involved
Burn injuries can be classified by the depth of the burn. What type of burn is the following? Most painful, nerves are intact
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Superficial
Burn injuries can be classified by the depth of the burn. What type of burn is the following? Burn that extends through the dermis
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Partial thickness
Burn injuries can be classified by the depth of the burn. What type of burn is the following? Burn that extends beyond the hair follicles and doesn't produce a lot of pain
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Full thickness
Burns can be classified by the severity of the injury. A burn that extends through the epidermis is referred to as a ______ degree burn.
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First degree
Burns can be classified by the severity of the injury. A burn that extends through the epidermis, dermis and hair follicle appendages is referred to as a ______ degree burn.
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Second degree
Burns can be classified by the severity of the injury. A burn that extends through the subcutaneous layer is referred to as a ______ degree burn.
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Third degree
The following are hallmark characteristics of a _________ burn. Dry, Painful, Red color, Singed hair and swollen
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Superficial
The following are characteristics associated with a _______ burn: Blistered, Painful, Red to white color, Swollen, Wet weepy wound, Singed hair that does not pull out when tugged
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Partial thickness
The following characteristics are hallmark for a ________ burn: Dry, Insensate, Tan to brown color, Firm to touch, Dry wound, Hair that plucks out when tugged
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Full thickness
In a child with full thickness burns, how are the presence of pulses confirmed?
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A doppler can be used to ensure that pulses are present distally.
What surgery is performed to treat constriction caused by healing wound tissue that is occluding blood flow to a distal area?
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Escharotomy is performed to prevent constriction, compression distal to the injury
What is the palm method for assessing burn surface area?
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The child's palm represent 1% of the body
What method is used by most burn centers to assess the extent of a patient's burns?
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The Lund-Browder chart
Why is the "Rule of Nines" not an accurate tool for determining the extent of an infant's/young child's burns?
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Infant head size is larger than adults (18% of the body vs. 9% in adults). An infant's legs account for 14 % surface area whereas it accounts for 18% of an adults.
What factors does the Lund-Browder burn assessment scale take into account when determine the extent of a child's burn?
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The age of the child, area affected, and percentage of the body surface area based upon height and weight
A major burn is one that covers ____% of a child's total body surface area that are partial or full thickness.
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20%
A moderate burn is one that has combination thicknesses of burns and covers _____% of a child's total body surface area.
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10-20%
A minor burn is one that covers ______ % of a child's total body surface area and is superficial or partial thickness.
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Less than 10%
What factors can cause a seemingly minor burn to be classified as moderate or severe?
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Burns of the face, hands, feet, perineum, crossing joints, electrical burns, presence of inhalation injury or concomitant trauma, & presence of chronic illnesses
Where should children with burns classified as severe be treated?
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At a specialized burn center
Where should children with burns classified as moderate be treated?
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At a hospital with some expertise in burn injuries
Where should children with burns classified as mild be treated?
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Outpatient
What order are the different burn types (thermal, chemical, electrical, scald and radiation) seen in order of prevalence?
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Scald (Water or Grease) Thermal (Flame or Contact) Electrical Chemical Radiation
________ are the number one cause of thermal injuries in children under the age of four.
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Scalds
Why are scald injuries more prevalent in children aged 4 and under?
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Younger children have thinner skins, Larger proportion of body is skin, Children have little control of environment and Young children have less perception of danger
If the hot water heater is set to 120 degrees farenheit, how long would a child have to be exposed in order to suffer from full thickness burns?
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Less than 5 minutes


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