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T/F The first system to form in utero is the neurological system.
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True, it starts to form in the first 3-4 weeks.
When does the neurological system begin to form in utero?
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Around 3-4 weeks.
What two CNS structures are formed from the neural tube during in utero development?
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The brain and spinal cord
By the _______ week of gestation, the neural tube has closed at the anterior end to form the brain and at the posterior end to form the spinal cord.
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4th week
By the second month of gestation the brain becomes the prominent body structure. Its grows rapidly and continues to grow until the _____ year of life.
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5th
What are four general reasons that malformations of the brain and spinal cord develop in utero?
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Infections, trauma, teratogens,and malnutrition during pregnancy
What factors increase the risk of cranial bone fractures in infants?
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The cranial bones aren't well developed and are unfused.
Why are infants at increased risk for hemorrhages?
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The infant's brain is highly vascular
Why are premature infants at greater risk for brain damage?
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The premature infant has more capillaries in the periventricular area, placing the infant at greater risk for rupture and pursuant intracranial bleeding. They also have a very soft cranium making it possible to change its shape and cause pressure in the brain that would result in hemorrhage.
What factors increase the risk of brain damage and intracranial bleeding for premature infants?
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The premature infant has more capillaries in the periventricular area, placing the infant at greater risk for rupture and pursuant intracranial bleeding.
What factor increases the risk of hemorrhage and brain damage in premature infants?
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They have a very soft cranium making it possible to change its shape externally and cause pressure in the brain that would result in hemorrhage.
Why are infants and young children at greater risk for cervical spine injuries?
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The child's spine is very mobile, especially in the cervical spine region
The speed and accuracy of nerve pulses in infants and children increases as _________ increases.
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Myelinization
______ is the fatty substance that surrounds the nerves of both the central and the peripheral nervous systems.
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Myelin
When in gestation does myelin begin to form?
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Begins to form about the 16th week of gestation.
What are the functions of myelin?
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Myelin insulates the nerves and helps to conduct electrical impulses.
The neonate’s neurologic system functions at a ______ level, allow for spinal cord reflexes such as sucking and cardiorespiratory functions.
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Subcortical
T/F Cortical functions are fully developed in a neonate.
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False. Cortical functions, including memory and coordination, are only partially developed
At birth the skull plates are not fused but are separated by nonossified spaces called ________.
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Fontanels
What process accounts for the acquisition of fine and gross motor movements and coordination in early childhood?
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The myelinization process
What factors contribute to an increased incidnece of head injury from falls in infants and young children?
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The infant's/child's neck muscles aren't well developed and their head is large in proportion to the bdy
What is the fastest growing body part in infancy?
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The head, it continues to grow until the child is 5
The posterior fontanel usually fuses by age _____and the anterior fontanel by _______.
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The posterior fontanel usually fuses by age 2 months and the anterior fontanel by 16 to 18 months.
Brain growth can be assessed through...
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Head circumference measurements.
Membranes that surround the brain and spinal column...
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Meninges
What makes up the brainstem?
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Midbrain Pons Medulla Thalamus Third ventricle
Any insult or critical event (teratogen, infection, substance abuse, or trauma) during this period can result in CNS malformation. These defects account for ____ of all apparent congenital malformation in live infants
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These defects account for 1/3 of all apparent congenital malformation in live infants
What group of defects are the most common neurological defect?
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Neural tube defects (90%)
CNS defects are responsible for _____% of infant deaths in the first year of life.
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CNS defects are responsible for 40% of infant deaths in the first year of life.
The number of glial cells and dendrites which enable receipt of nerve impulses, continue to increase until approximately ______ years of age.
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4 years of age


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