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Question Answer
The toddler period is ages....
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1-3 (12-36 months)
What is the average weight gain of toddlers on a yearly basis?
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3-5 lbs.
What is the average growth in height for toddlers per year?
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3 inches per year. By 2, toddlers generally reach half their adult height.
What illnesses are common among toddlers?
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Otitis media, upper respiratory infections, and tonsillitis
At what age do toddlers typically develop sphincter control, allowing for potty training?
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18-24 months
Myelinization of the brain and spinal cord continues during the toddler years and is complete around _____ years of age.
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2 years of age
At what age does a child reach the adult number of aveoli in their lungs?
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Around age 7
How does the cardiovascular system change in toddlerhood when compared to infancy?
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The heart rate decreases and the blood pressure increases
Pepsin production matures by _____ years of age.
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2 years of age
At what age does bladder and kidney function in children reach adult levels?
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16-24 months of age
What is normal urine output for toddlers?
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1 ml/kg/hour (children at this age are more prone to UTIs).
According to Erikson, toddlers are at what stage of psychosocial development?
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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
According to Erikson, what are the major characteristics of the autonomy vs. shame & doubt stage of psychosocial development?
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The child is struggling for self mastery, wants to do for himself what others have been doing for him, emotionally labile, loves to say no (negativism), and ritualization provides comfort.
The toddler's anterior fontanel closes at ______ months of age.
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18 months
According to Freud's psychosocial theory, what stage are toddlers in?
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The anal stage, frustration is tied to sphincter control. This is the time with id, ego, and superego are developed
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what stages are toddlers in?
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Sensorimotor continues until age 24 months, then toddlers move into the preoperational stage (ages 2-7)
What are the characteristics of the cognitive development of toddlers in the sensorimotor stage as described by Piaget?
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Toddlers develop awareness of causal relationships, experiment with behaviors to see what happens, uses symbols and delayed imitation.
What are the characteristics of the cognitive development of toddlers in the preoperational stage as described by Piaget?
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Able to use symbolic thought, engage in dramatic play, learn spatial relationships, attribute human feelings to inanimate objects (animism), limited concept of time.
What age is the following gross motor skill typically observed? Walks independently
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12-15 months
What age is the following gross motor skill typically observed? Climbs stairs with assistance, pulls toys while walking.
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18 months
What age is the following gross motor skill typically observed? Runs, kicks ball, can stand on tiptoe, carries several toys or a large toy while walking, climbs onto furniture.
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24 months/2 years old
What age is the following gross motor skill typically observed? Climbs well, pedals tricycle, runs easily, takes stairs with alternate feet
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Three years old/36 months
What age is the following fine motor skill typically observed? Feeds self finger foods, uses index finger to point
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12-15 months
What age is the following fine motor skill typically observed? Masters reaching, grasping, and releasing: stacks blocks, puts things in slots. Can turn pages in a book, remove socks & shoes, stack four cubes
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18 months
What age is the following fine motor skill typically observed? Builds tower of six or seven cubes, establishes dominant hand, imitates circular and vertical strokes, scribbles, paints, turns knobs
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24 months/2 years old
What age is the following fine motor skill typically observed? Undresses self, copies circle, build a tower of 9-10 cubes, holds a pencil in writing position
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3 years old/36 months
What is the average visual acuity of a toddler?
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20/40-20/50 in both eyes
Why are toddlers at risk for poisoning at this age?
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They lack a complete ability for taste discrimination and will put anything into their mouth
What are the key tasks related to social development for a toddler?
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Differentiation of self from parent, individualization and developing independence.
At what age is it normal for toddlers to develop separation anxiety again?
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18-24 months, it usually subsides by 24-36 months.


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