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What are the priority considerations in children with mental health disorders?
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Safety and self-esteem
What is considered the usual threshold on an intelligence test for mental retardation?
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An intelligence quotient of 70 or less
Aside from intelligence assessments, what else is factored into a diagnosis of mental retardation?
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Adaptive behaviors, developmental delays, essentially the ability to manage age appropriate tasks of daily living.
What are the main nursing interventions focused on for patients with mental retardation?
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Promoting coping skills, patient and parent education
________ is characterized by an uneven pattern of intelligence strengths and weaknesses marked by severe developmental delays that cannot be attributed to mental retardation.
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Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Children with _______ disorder may show a lifelong pattern of rigidity, intolerance of change, and behavioral outbursts in response to environmental demands or changes in routine.
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Pervasive Developmental Disorder
What are the two distinguishing characteristics between autism and and other pervasive developmental disorders?
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Early age of onset (before 30 months), and severe disturbance in social relatedness
What are common characteristics of children with autism?
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They exhibit an aloofness, indifference to others, preference for inanimate objects, impairments in communications, have stereotypic behaviors and concrete in interpretation of language.
What are some common speech/communication characteristics of children with autism?
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Delayed speech development, echolalia (repetition of words/sounds spoken by others), concrete interpretation of language, pronoun reversals, abnormal intonation.
_______ disorder is a marked impairment of development in social interaction and communication with a restrictive repertoire of activity and interest.
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Autistic disorder
Which gender is most likely to be diagnosed with autism, and which gender tends to be impacted most severely with poorer outcomes?
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Boys are more likely to have autism but girls tend to be more severely impaired with poorer outcomes
What is an ascertainment bias?
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A method of identifying cases for scientific study that creates a sample that differs from the population it is trying to represent. This is thought to be the reason for initial support of indifference of professional parents as a cause for autism.
What biochemical differences have been identified in children with autism?
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Increased platelet serotonin levels, excessive dopaminergic activity, and alterations of endogenous opioids.
What medication has demonstrated efficacy in reducing hyperactivity, emotional lability and stereotypic behaviors in children with autism?
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Haloperidol
What are the common side effects of Haloperidol in children with autism and what are the recommendations regarding treatment?
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Tardive dyskinesia and withdrawal dyskinesias. Drug holidays every 6-12 months are recommended to assess for continued need for the medication.
_________ has been found to be a safe and effective treatment for reducing aggression, tantrums, and self-injury in children with autism.
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Risperdal/risperidone
If a child with autism is prescribed methylpehnidate/Ritalin, what are some things to keep in mind regarding side effects and dosing?
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Children with autism appear to be more likely to develop adverse effects at medium level dosing, including increases in self-injury. Dosing should start low and be incremented slower than usual.
_______ disorder is defined as a severe and sustained impairment in social interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.
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Aspergers disorder
Children with ________ demonstrate inappropriate initiation of social interactions, inability to respond to usual social cues and a tendency to be concrete in language interpretation.
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Aspergers disorder
What disorders are commonly seen in children with autism?
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Seizure disorders
What condition is usually comorbid in children with Aspergers?
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Depression
What are the critical elements of a psychological assessment of a child?
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Intellectual ability, communication skills and adaptive functioning
A nurse observes a child demonstrating the stereotypic behavior of rocking. What should she do?
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Ignore it, as long as the behavior has no negative effects it should be ignored.
A nurse observes a child demonstrating the stereotypic behavior of headbanging. What should she do?
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Redirect the child and use positive reinforcement . Environmental alterations or protective head gear may be needed if other interventions are unsuccessful.
How can interaction be promoted for children with pervasive developmental disorders like autism or Aspergers?
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Foster nonverbal interactions like getting the mail, taking turns during a simple game, passing out snacks. Activities that engage the child without speech demands.
What is a nonverbal learning disorder?
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Delays in mathematical functioning
___________ involves the discrimination and interpretation of speech sounds.
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Phonological processing
Damage to the _______ hemisphere is thought to be the cause of a reading disability.
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Left hemisphere
A mathematics disorders appears to be a disorder caused by dysfunction of the ________ hemisphere of the brain.
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Right hemisphere
Speech refers to the ______aspects of speaking whereas language refers to __________.
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Speech refers to motor aspects, language refers to formulating and comprehending verbal communication.


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