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Question Answer
Which gender is most likely to suffer from a sleep disorder?
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Women
What part of the brain regulates wakefulness?
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The reticular activating system
Sleep _______ is the time period measured from bedtime to the beginning of sleep.
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Sleep latency
Sleep_________ is the pattern of NREM and REM which occurs in a 90-110 minute cycle.
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Sleep architecture
What regulates the stages and timing of sleep?
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Circadian rhythms
Sleep ________ is the ratio of total sleep time to nocturnal time in bed.
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Sleep efficiency
Where is the biologic clock that regulates circadian rhythm located in the brain?
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The suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus
_______ is the term for people who perform best in the early morning and make up most of the population.
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Larks
________ is the term for people who are more alert and perform better in the late evening hours, have a natural tendency to stay up late and are at higher risk for developing sleep apnea or insomnia.
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Owls
How often does the NREM-REM cycle repeat itself a night?
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5-6 times
How does REM sleep change throughout the sleep cycle?
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REM sleep lengthens with each successive cycle, dominating at the end of the sleep period.
Which phase of sleep is most dominant in the early evening?
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NREM
Which phase of sleep is most dominant in the latter stages of sleep?
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REM sleep lengthens with each successive cycle, dominating at the end of the sleep period.
NREM occurs about ________ minutes after falling asleep.
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90
What are the characteristics of stages 1 & 2 of sleep?
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It is light, the person is easily aroused, may not recognize they'd been asleep.
Stage _____ of sleep accounts for 5% of a night's sleep and is the transition between sleep and wakefulness.
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Stage 1
Which stage of sleep comprises the majority of a night's sleep?
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Stage 2
What happens to the brain rhythms during Stage 1 & 2 of sleep?
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Alpha rhythms are gradually replaced by theta rhythms.
When do sleep spindles or k complexes occur during sleep (what stage)?
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Stage 2
The deepest state of sleep is called ________ sleep and is thought to have a restorative function.
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Slow wave sleep
What stages of sleep does the deepest, most restorative sleep occur in?
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Stages 3 & 4
What brain waves are seen in stage 3 and 4 of sleep?
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Delta waves, stage 3 has 20-50% of delta waves and stage 4 has more than 50%.
What happens to the brain during REM sleep?
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It is very active, more blood flows to the brain and brain temperature increases.
Why is there a paralysis of the head and neck during REM sleep?
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Nerve impulses from the spinal cord are blocked allowing for only strong impulses are relayed including impulses controlling heart rate and respirations (both become irregular).
T/F People don't sweat or shiver during REM sleep.
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TRUE, temperature regulation is impaired
T/F As people age, the need for sleep decreases.
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False, the need to sleep doesn't decrease but the ability to sleep does.
How long does it typically take for sleepiness to dissapate once a sleep disturbance is corrected?
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4-6 days
What activities are known to decrease REM sleep?
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Rising early, alcohol intake before bed, and CNS-acting medications/drugs.
________ occurs when there is recurrent long term sleep deprivation.
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Sleep debt
How does the body compensate for lost REM sleep?
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The body compensates by an earlier occurrence of REM sleep during the next night.


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