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Question Answer
What is the typical time of onset for anorexia nervosa?
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Usually in early adolesence, between ages 14-16
What factors have been associated with poorer outcomes for patients with anorexia nervosa?
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Initial lower minimum weight, purging, and a later age of onset.
What are the central features of anorexia nervosa?
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A drive for thinness, perfectionism, and fear of becoming fat.
What physical symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?
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A weight loss of at least 25 lbs. and absence of menses for at least 3 consecutive months or periods.
The mental image of one's own body is referred to as?
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Body image
What are typical thought patterns for patients with anorexia nervosa?
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All or nothing thinking like if I gain a pound I will never stop gaining weight.
How is behavior impacted by anorexia nervosa?
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It becomes organized around food-related activities including food preparation, calorie counting, reading cookbooks, maintenance of eating rituals.
What feelings and fears are common in patients with anorexia nervosa?
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Feelings of inadequacy, guilt, strong desire to avoid conflict and fear of maturity
What personality characteristics has been found to have an extremely strong predictor for the development of anorexia nervosa in athletes?
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Perfectionism
Lack of___________ is the term for confusion in defining feelings and visceral cues like hunger.
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Interoceptive awareness
T/F The earlier the onset of menses, the higher the risk of developing anorexia nervosa.
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TRUE
What was found to be a strong predictor for binge eating in males?
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Anger and depression
What was found to be a strong predictor for binge eating in females?
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Diet failure
What is the difference in age of onset of anorexia nervosa in males?
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It tends to be later, with a mean age of 20.5
What are common comorbidities with anorexia nervosa?
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Anxiety disorders like OCD, phobias and panic disorders and depression
Why is OCD considered an independent risk factor for anorexia nervosa?
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In many patients with anorexia nervosa, OCD symptoms were present up to 5 years prior.
How is the brain impacted by anorexia nervosa?
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Reductions in gray and white matter volume occurs during ill states and remits with recovery.
What brain structures have been implicated in anorexia nervosa?
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The cingulate, frontal, temporal and parietal regions which are thought to cause body image distortions
What neurochemical is shown to be significantly reduced in patients with anorexia nervosa?
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Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
What is the psychological theory for why anorexia nervosa develops?
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Failure in the key tasks of separation-individuation and autonomy are interrupted resulting in delays in development. Also, fear of adult sexuality results in self-starvation
What event has been shown to trigger the onset of anorexia nervosa?
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Dating
What is the prevalent social theory for why anorexia nervosa develops?
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Media and other social influences glamorize thin builds and creates a innate dissatisfaction. To cope, girls diet and overexercise.
What act was linked to the development of eating disorders, higher weight concerns, loneliness, poor self-perception and higher preference for sedentary/isolative activities?
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Teasing
What family characteristics have been linked to anorexia nervosa?
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High enmeshment (intensity of interactions), overprotectiveness, rigidity, conflict avoidance, and strong ethical or religious code
What are the risk factors for anorexia nervosa?
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Dieting despite weight loss, increase in BMR, overexercising, fear of weight gain, perfectionism, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, weight gain during puberty, society's focus on ideal body type.
What factors were found to provide resilience or protection against development of anorexia nervosa?
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Academic achievement, family connectedness, emotional well-being, and positive self-esteem.
What are the components of the female athlete triad of symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
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Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunctions and Low BMI
What parental behaviors have been linked to eating disorders?
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Low affection, communication, and little time spent with the child.
What are the treatment focuses for patients with anorexia nervosa?
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Nutrition rehabilitation, electrolyte & fluid balance, resolving body image conflicts, increasing coping skills, assisting family with healthy communication and functioning.
What is needed in most cases to restore weight in patients with anorexia nervosa?
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Hospitalization


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